Article provides a brief overview of the complications arising during the construction of oil and gas wells in conditions of abnormally high and abnormally low formation pressures. Technological properties of the solutions used to eliminate emergency situations when drilling wells in the intervals of catastrophic absorption and influx of formation fluid have been investigated. A technology for isolating water influx in intervals of excess formation pressure has been developed. The technology is based on the use of a special device that provides control of the hydrodynamic pressure in the annular space of the well. An experiment was carried out to determine the injection time of a viscoelastic system depending on its rheology, rock properties and technological parameters of the isolation process. A mathematical model based on the use of a special device is presented. The model allows determining the penetration depth of a viscoelastic system to block water-bearing horizons to prevent interformation crossflows and water breakthrough into production wells.
Modern trends in the global energy market linked to the Sustainable Development Goals often lead to the adoption of political decisions with little basis in fact. Stepping up the development of renewable energy sources is an economically questionable but necessary step in terms of its social and ecological effects. However, subsequent development of hydrogen infrastructure is, at the very least, a dangerous initiative. In connection with mentioned above, an attempt to examine hydrogen by conducting an integral assessment of its characteristics has been made in this article. As a result of the research conducted, the following conclusions concerning the potential of the widespread implementation of hydrogen in the power generation sector have been made: as a chemical element, it harms steel structures, which significantly impedes the selection of suitable materials; its physical and volume characteristics decrease the general efficiency of the energy system compared to similar hydrocarbon solutions; the hydrogen economy does not have the necessary foundation in terms of both physical infrastructure and market regulation mechanisms; the emergence of widely available hydrogen poses a danger for society due to its high combustibility. Following the results of the study, it was concluded that the existing pilot hydrogen projects are positive yet not scalable solutions for the power generation sector due to the lack of available technologies to construct large-scale and geographically distributed infrastructure and adequate international system of industry regulation. Thus, under current conditions, the risks of implementing such projects considerably exceed their potential ecological benefits.
Article presents results of study on possibility of increasing the efficiency of drilling directional straight sections of wells using screw downhole motors (SDM) with a combined method of drilling with rotation of drilling string (DS). Goal is to ensure steady-state operation of SDM with simultaneous rotation of DS by reducing the amplitude of oscillations with adjusting the parameters of drilling mode on the basis of mathematical modeling for SDM – DS system. Results of experimental study on determination of extrema distribution of lateral and axial oscillations of SDM frame depending on geometrical parameters of gerotor mechanism and modes ensuring stable operation are presented. Approaches to development of a mathematical model and methodology are conceptually outlined that allow determining the range of self-oscillations for SDM – DS system and boundaries of rotational and translational wave perturbations for a heterogeneous rod with an installed SDM at drilling directional straight sections of well. This mathematical model of SDM – DS system's dynamics makes it possible to predict optimal parameters of directional drilling mode that ensure stable operation of borehole assembly.
The article shows research analysis of engineering and technological solutions that aimed at improving the efficiency of drilling wells using optimization of dynamic of work downhole drill-ing motors. As the technical solutions that reduce vibration, considered two options of construc-tion of the power section. A first embodiment involves the production of a hollow rotor which can reduce its moment of inertia. The second solution is the production of modular rotor, which are changing the eccentricity (misalignment) of rotating parts of the engine. The research of fluctuations throughout the length of the power section of the working bodies and the spindle of the engine, taking into account changes in its energy characteristics has been con-ducted to ensure stable operation of the engine in a well, identifying optimal loading parameters. Indicators of shaft speed ensuring minimum vibration amplitude of the engine has been Iden-tified. Optimal speed range of the rotor to prevent buckling of the BHA and to sustain its operation is shown to be between 15-20 % of the frequency of the engine at idle. The maximum reduction in speed during the drilling process should not exceed 30 % by conducted research.
An analysis of operational capabilities of inclined drilling equipment and technology is presented. Two options of rotary drilling are reviewed as technical and technological solutions, facilitating construction of wells with difficult profiles. The first option implies that the driver unit of the drill bit is represented by downhole drilling motor, the second one utilizes sophisticated rotary steerable systems. Practical results of drilling wells with difficult profiles are presented. A quality assessment of drilling is provided through the example of comparing designed and actual trajectories, using different driver units for the drill bit, as well as properties of surrounding rocks, rheology of the drill fluid and other characteristics of dynamically active systems. A range of rotation speed has been determined that allows rotary steerable systems to have minimal oscillation amplitude of the bottom-hole assembly. Analysis of investigation results showed that the main source of oscillations is linked to bending and compressing stresses, caused by well deviations as well as rigidity of the drilling tool. In effect, in the bottom-hole assembly occur auto-oscillations, making it impossible to correct azimuth and zenith angles. Alteration of rigidity in the bottom part of the tool and drilling parameters, implying reduced rotation speed of the drill string and regulation of drill bit pressure, can partially solve this problem, though increase in rotation speed is limited by technical characteristics of existing top drive systems.
The main directions of increasing the efficiency of drilling wells by improving methods for designing profiles of directional and horizontal wells are identified. The feasibility and necessity of using at drilling with rotary controlled systems the trajectories of directed wells' profiles with continuous curving, that do not contain conjugated sections, on the basis of plane transcendental curves are theoretically substantiated and experimentally confirmed. An algorithm and software are developed that allow optimal selection of a profile or a trajectory section, taking into account minimization of twisting, bending, compressive and tensile stresses that ensure the efficiency of technical and technological parameters of well drilling.
Paper presents the analysis of the investigation results of vibrational accelerations and beating amplitudes of the downhole drilling motor, which help to define the ranges of optimum energy characteristics of the gerotor mechanism, ensuring its stable operation. Dependencies describing the operation of the «drilling bit – rotary steerable system with power screw section – drilling string» system and the values of the self-oscillation boundaries and the onset of system resonance when it is used jointly, were defined as a result of computational and full-scale experimental research. A mathematical model is proposed, which allows determining the optimal range of technological parameters for well drilling, reducing the extreme vibration accelerations of the bottomhole assembly by controlling the torque-power and frequency characteristics of the drilling string, taking into account the energy characteristics of the power screw section of the rotary steerable system. Recommendations on the choice of drilling mode parameters were given.