The distribution of natural (at the level of global background) and technogenic radionuclides in groundwater of the industrial zone in Sosnovy Bor town, where several nuclear power facilities are operating, was analyzed. The main technogenic radionuclides recorded in groundwater samples are cesium ( 137 Cs), strontium ( 90 Sr), and tritium isotopes. The first two aquifers from the surface are subject to contamination: the Quaternary and the upper zone of the Lomonosov aquifer. Based on extensive material on the engineering and geological studies of the work area, a 3D geological model and hydrodynamic and geomigration models of the industrial zone were constructed. By means of modeling, the extent and nature of changes in hydrogeological conditions of area resulting from the construction and operational drainage of the new stage of the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP-2) were determined. The “historical” halo of radioactive contamination of groundwater forming (1970-1990) at the site adjacent to the NPP, where the storage facility of low- and medium-level radioactive waste is located, falls into the zone of influence. Interpretation of monitoring data allowed obtaining the migration parameters for predictive estimates. Modeling has shown that during the time of the LNPP-2 operation there was no intake of contaminated water by the drainage system of the new power plant.
The paper analyses features of the species composition and diversity of biotic communities living within the ferromanganese nodule fields (the Clarion-Clipperton field), cobalt-manganese crusts (the Magellan Seamounts) and deep-sea polymetallic sulphides (the Ashadze-1, Ashadze-2, Logatchev and Krasnov fields) in the Russian exploration areas of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Prospects of mining solid minerals of the world’s oceans with the least possible damage to the marine ecosystems are considered that cover formation of the sediment plumes and roiling of significant volumes of water as a result of collecting the minerals as well as conservation of the hydrothermal fauna and microbiota, including in the impact zone of high temperature hydrothermal vents. Different concepts and layout options for deep-water mining complexes (the Indian and Japanese concepts as well as those of the Nautilus Minerals and Saint Petersburg Mining University) are examined with respect to their operational efficiency. The main types of mechanisms that are part of the complexes are identified and assessed based on the defined priorities that include the ecological aspect, i.e. the impact on the seabed environment; manufacturing and operating costs; and specific energy consumption, i.e. the technical and economic indicators. The presented morphological analysis gave grounds to justify the layout of a deep-sea minerals collecting unit, i.e. a device with suction chambers and a grip arm walking gear, selected based on the environmental key priority. Pilot experimental studies of physical and mechanical properties of cobalt-manganese crust samples were performed through application of bilateral axial force using spherical balls (indenters) and producing a rock strength passport to assess further results of the experimental studies. Experimental destructive tests of the cobalt-manganese crust by impact and cutting were carried out to determine the impact load and axial cutting force required for implementation of the collecting system that uses a clamshell-type effector with a built-in impactor.