The article presents a theoretical and experimental substantiation of the method of directional unloading of the reservoir in fields with low-permeability reservoirs. The relevance of the article is due to the reduction of hydrocarbon resources in modern conditions and the need to create new efficient environmentally friendly technologies to develop hydrocarbon deposits with hard-to-recover reserves, primarily with low-permeability reservoirs. The results of a theoretical study of the stress-strain state in the vicinity of a well, both cased and open, are presented. They are necessary to develop programs for laboratory testing of core specimens from the studied fields. A technique for physical modelling of deformation processes in the bottomhole zone with a decrease in pressure at the well bottom in a true triaxial loading unit is described in order to determine the parameters of the process impact on the formation reservoir, leading to an increase in well productivity. The method was applied to the conditions of the low-permeability reservoir at the Verkhneviluchanskoye oil and gas condensate field in the southwest of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Expe-rimental studies were carried out on a unique scientific unit for true triaxial loading, created at the IPMech RAS, the Triaxial Independent Loading Test System. The directional unloading method was adapted for the studied field, the process parameters of successful application of the method were determined: the bottomhole design, the drawdown values necessary to increase the permeability of the bottomhole formation zone.