The paper analyses features of the species composition and diversity of biotic communities living within the ferromanganese nodule fields (the Clarion-Clipperton field), cobalt-manganese crusts (the Magellan Seamounts) and deep-sea polymetallic sulphides (the Ashadze-1, Ashadze-2, Logatchev and Krasnov fields) in the Russian exploration areas of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Prospects of mining solid minerals of the world’s oceans with the least possible damage to the marine ecosystems are considered that cover formation of the sediment plumes and roiling of significant volumes of water as a result of collecting the minerals as well as conservation of the hydrothermal fauna and microbiota, including in the impact zone of high temperature hydrothermal vents. Different concepts and layout options for deep-water mining complexes (the Indian and Japanese concepts as well as those of the Nautilus Minerals and Saint Petersburg Mining University) are examined with respect to their operational efficiency. The main types of mechanisms that are part of the complexes are identified and assessed based on the defined priorities that include the ecological aspect, i.e. the impact on the seabed environment; manufacturing and operating costs; and specific energy consumption, i.e. the technical and economic indicators. The presented morphological analysis gave grounds to justify the layout of a deep-sea minerals collecting unit, i.e. a device with suction chambers and a grip arm walking gear, selected based on the environmental key priority. Pilot experimental studies of physical and mechanical properties of cobalt-manganese crust samples were performed through application of bilateral axial force using spherical balls (indenters) and producing a rock strength passport to assess further results of the experimental studies. Experimental destructive tests of the cobalt-manganese crust by impact and cutting were carried out to determine the impact load and axial cutting force required for implementation of the collecting system that uses a clamshell-type effector with a built-in impactor.