The article deals with the problems arising during the mechanical and thermal treatment of the TMZ-450D diesel engine cylinder, which is the base part of the engines of small-sized generators and compressors, which are widely used for mobile units in the oil and gas and mining industries. It was found that the metal in the casting has a non-uniform structure, the density of which ranges from 6.75 to 7.25 g/cm 3 . Redistribution of dislocations and residual stresses in the casting leads to significant changes in the size and shape of the main bore. In addition to the successive changes in size specified by the technology due to the removal of the designated allowance, the dimensions and shape change arbitrarily, uncontrollably in the course of the technological process. It is shown that artificial aging by a thermal method does not provide the desired dimensional stability; therefore, it is proposed to supplement it with natural aging after rough boring for six months. It was revealed that the use of morally and physically outdated equipment makes it necessary to increase the number of finishing operations of honing and, accordingly, to increase the labor intensity of cylinder manufacturing. The use of a two-position boring machine is substantiated, on which the transitions of semi-finishing and fine boring are combined. This completely eliminates the copying of errors that arose when changing the base on previous operations. The use of a two-position modular boring machine ARS-4/Ts of increased accuracy and rigidity significantly increases the accuracy of the bore hole, which makes it possible to reduce the number of honing operations. A variant of the technological process of mechanical and heat treatment is proposed, including natural aging, the use of double boring on a modular boring machine, which will reduce the number of honing operations to one, including rough and finish transitions.