Currently, the determination of the emission rate of suspended solids from a unit of the surface area of a man-made mass at various parameters of the wind flow is not sufficiently described. The analysis of the world experience of researchers shows that existing laboratory installations have various design features that do not allow to correctly determine the mass of the dust being flapped and wind-blown. Based on the analysis results, the concept of an innovative laboratory installation for the study of dust-forming surfaces has been developed. It takes into account the influence of wind shadows, the deturbulization of an artificially created air flow, the possibility of regulating not only the flow velocity mode, but also the creation of a vacuum or disturbance in the area of sample placement, as well as the formation of a certain angle of wind flow attack relative to the surface. The concept provides for the possibility of determining the volume of dust emissions by the values of the lost dust masses in the sample and by the values of dust concentrations in the outgoing stream. The calculation of the main basic elements of the installation using the ANSYS FLUENT software package was carried out. The model and configuration of the wind tunnel have been developed and calculated, the main geometric parameters and functional elements for the possibility of use in scientific work have been determined. For practical use of the empirical roughness value of the underlying surface, its values are recommended in a wide range – from zero for the water surface to 0.44 for large cities with tall buildings and skyscrapers.
For example, steel 110G13L as the material of teeth of excavator buckets, shows that the work hardening (hardening) is an effective means to increase (up to 10 times) the wear resistance of components in contact with abrasive media, such as marble, yielding the steel in a state of hard-ening of hardness. In the case of wear on the rocks (granite, gabbro) with a hardness greater than the hardness of steel, the effect of hardening has almost no effect. It was found that high-temperature thermomechanical treatment of steel 35HGSA as the material of holders of rotary cut-ters (strain at 900 С, water quenching, tempering at 230 С) leads to a substantial increase of its hardness (23 %) and durability (38 %) compared to typical heat treatment used in the manufacture of cutting tools at the factory.
Regularities abrasion steel 110G13L with a significant load on the sample and impact. Found that increasing the load to the point where the voltage on the surface of the sample achieved a true rupture stress of the material, does not increase the wear resistance of steel. Shown that the impact and, therefore, have no hardening significant influence on the wear rate of steel in its work on the solids (granite, gabbro). In the case of soft rocks (marble) concomitant impact effect is exceeds durability of the material. Designed conclusion on whether the elements are made of mining and processing equipment from steel 110G13L depending on the hardness of the destroyed rock.