When performing technological operations in the peat industry, various units with milling-type working bodies are used. They differ in design, layout, number and type of cutting elements, operating modes, and may have one or more working bodies. During operation, random forces and moments act on the cutters, which have a dramatically variable nature, which is associated with the periodic interaction of the knives with the peat deposit, its structural heterogeneity, variations in the milling depth, physical and mechanical properties of peat, the rotational speed of the cutter and the movement speed of the machine. In this case, significant dynamic loads arise in the structural elements, which leads to a decrease in their reliability, deterioration of the energy characteristics of the engine operation and technical and economic indicators of use. In the dynamic analysis of drive elements, when using machines with several working bodies, it is necessary to know both spectral and mutual spectral load densities. For their calculation, expressions were obtained that take into account the physical and mechanical properties of peat, the operating modes of the unit and their probabilistic characteristics, as well as the design features of the working body. The expressions are obtained for the case when there are several working bodies with the same diameters and the number of knives in the cutting plane. In this case, the number of planes, width, type of cutting element and type of cutting (locked, semi-locked, etc.) may differ. As an example of using the developed approaches, the calculation of spectral and mutual spectral densities of moments on cutters and loads in the drive elements of the machine for surface-layer milling MTF-14 is presented.
The main source of dynamic loads in the drive elements and the design of the peat milling unit is the working body. The forces of external resistance arising in the process of performing a technological operation are sharply variable, random in nature. The article proposes a model of formation of the moment of resistance on the mill when interacting with peat. The case when there are several cutting planes with the same radius at the ends of the cutting elements is considered. When developing the model, it was taken into account that the operating conditions of the knives, determined by the type of cutting (blocked, semi-blocked, etc.), their width and type in each cutting plane can vary. Factors that determine the nature of loading, such as the frequency of interaction of the cutting elements with the fallow and the randomness of the operating conditions of the unit, lead to the presentation of the loads in the form of a sequence of pulses with random parameters. Expressions are obtained for determining the spectral density of the moment of resistance on the mill at the design stage, taking into account its design, operating modes, physico-mechanical properties of peat and their probabilistic characteristics. To illustrate the application of the developed approaches, a technique is presented for determining the spectral density of the moment on the working body of deep milling machines and in their drive elements based on a linear model. An example of calculation is given, and the obtained expressions are verified on the basis of experimental data. The probabilistic characteristics of the loads on the mill serve as initial information for the dynamic analysis of the drive system and the design of the unit, its strength analysis, the selection of optimal parameters and operating modes.