The kernel of the problem of associated petroleum gas rational use in Russia is stated in the article; the analyses of reasons that are obstacles in the way of associated petroleum gas utilization is fulfilled; the main directions of economic mechanism based on state-private cooperation in the sphere of production and use of associated petroleum gas are offered.
The basic principles of the existing tax structure in the sphere of entrails usage are stated in the article. Some disadvantages of tax on mineral resources extraction in respect of energy resources are pointed out. The necessity of tax rates differentiation with reference to tax on mineral resources extraction is proved in an effort to stimulate rational subsoil usage.
Предложена концепция формирования стимулирующей налоговой системы в минерально-сырьевом комплексе России; обоснованы методические принципы построения стимулирующего налогообложения прибыли недропользователей; изложены критерии и показатели льготного налогового режима при недропользовании.
Энергосбережение является частью общей политики государства по ресурсосбережению, которая в условиях рыночной экономики направлена на рациональное и экономное использование минерально-сырьевых ресурсов с целью достижения устойчивого развития народного хозяйства. Ресурсосбережение является комплексной проблемой, осуществляемой целенаправленной государственной структурно-инвестиционной, финансово-кредитной, налоговой, правовой и научно-технической политикой. Изложены основные мероприятия по энергосбережению в различных отраслях народного хозяйства. Рассмотрены вопросы создания правого организационного и законодательного обеспечения формирования государственной политики по энергосбережению.
At present, the problem of transition of the Russian economy from mining to the production of high-tech products is becoming increasingly important. The article reflects the main problems of the iron ore industry related to the introduction of innovative technologies and describes the experience of leading companies solving this problem.
Russia is rich in various types of energy resources, but natural gas has the largest share in electricity generation. As a result of growing energy consumption, gas-generated energy is not able to fully meet the country's electricity needs. Thus, to ensure the country's energy security, it is necessary to diversify all sources of energy and capacity while reducing natural gas consumption. The only energy resource that can currently compete with natural gas in the domestic market is coal. The abundance of this type of fuel and a wide range of its applications can ensure Russia's energy security in the long term.
The current state of the mining industry of Kuzbass is analyzed in the paper. The author considered the economic activity of mining enterprises of the Kemerovo region and the main problems of development of the mining industry.
Deterioration of the mineral resource base is an acute problem of the oil industry today. We can observe a stable lag of geological exploration works behind the growth rate of oil production in recent years. This situation in the oil industry is far from optimal. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures to bring the oil industry out of the coming crisis. The article presents the top-priority tasks for the reproduction of the mineral resource base and the development of geological exploration, facing the state.
Increasing the competitiveness of domestic enterprises and goods produced by them is declared the most important problem of the Russian economy. In order to manage the level of competitiveness of the object under study, it is necessary to quantify the competitiveness indicator. In the paper, the competitiveness of the coal mining company is assessed using two methods. With regard to the method of assessing the competitiveness of a coal mining company, some clarifications and additions are proposed. They relate to the peculiarities of using coal as a fuel and raw materials for electricity generation.
The article considers the problems of creating a system of effective state regulation of coal companies in Russia in connection with the end of the period of restructuring of the production potential of the industry and the withdrawal of the state from direct participation in the activities of coal companies. The main tasks and difficulties faced by coal mining companies at the present stage of development are characterized. The directions of improvement of the state regulation of the coal industry are proposed.
The main problems of the geological exploration industry are considered: lack of financing, imperfection of mining and tax legislation. The legal basis for solving these problems should be the state regulation of development and use of mineral resource base. A number of measures are proposed, the adoption of which will lead to a more efficient system of subsoil use.
The issues of formation of modern mining law in Russia are considered. The conceptual provisions to be reflected in the draft law of the Russian Federation "On Subsoil" are defined. The requirements for mining legislation to create uniform legal norms and rules for the owner of subsoils (the state) and subsoil users are substantiated.
The main problems of the geological exploration industry are considered: the lack of financing and imperfections in the mining and tax legislation, which do not create favorable conditions for attracting investment in this sector. State regulation of the development and use of the mineral resource base is considered as the main criterion for solving these problems. A number of measures, the adoption of which will lead to a more effective system of subsoil use, are proposed. These are, first of all, reforms in the field of taxation, licensing, insurance market. It is necessary to develop a new national mineral resource policy in the presence of the strictest legislative control by the state.
On the basis of the Leningrad oil shale deposit the only oil shale mining enterprise in Russia - OAO Leningradslanets - operates. The present state of the oil shale industry is analyzed, and a brief analysis of its economic activity is given. The critical state of the industry is noted, because after the collapse of the USSR Russia lost its main consumers of oil shale. The difficult financial situation of the city-forming enterprise - OAO Leningradslanets - has led to negative social and economic consequences in the life of the population of the whole Slantsy region. The prospects of the enterprise's development through the implementation of an innovative project for the construction of an oil shale-based power engineering complex are being considered.
The economic, social and environmental issues of the coal industry at the present stage are considered. The economic analysis of the state of coal mining enterprises on the example of OAO Gukovugol - one of the largest anthracite enterprises in Eastern Donbass. The special attention is given to the questions of environmental protection and environmental activity of the association, the level of the negative effect of the enterprises of OAO Gukovugol on the environment, the necessary expenses for environmental measures, the volume and structure of the resource payments are determined. The tasks were formulated, fulfillment of which will contribute to increase of coal competitiveness in the energy market.
The analysis of the current state of the coal industry in China has been carried out. The basic economic indicators of activity of coal-mining complexes, located in the central region of China, which are the main source of energy resources in the country, are estimated. The basic qualitative indicators of work of enterprises of the coal industry are investigated: level of use of the basic production funds, labour productivity, profitability, specific indicators of profit. Priority directions of economic policy on increase of efficiency of coal-mining complexes of the central region of China were substantiated. It is specified that in the conditions of decrease in domestic demand for coal, it is necessary to develop production of alternative energy sources, to carry out diversification of production, to increase labor productivity, to reduce the number of employees in coal industry and to introduce advanced technologies.
The priority directions of socio-economic and organizational and legal policy in the sphere of regional management of natural resources are substantiated and highlighted. The unified principles of state management of natural resource complexes are adopted as a common methodological basis. The ways of improving the economic mechanism of regional nature management taking into account the combination of the interests of the federal center and the territories have been considered. A set of managerial tasks by the example of the Department of Natural Resources in the North-West region has been developed, the functions of the region in the sphere of management of the mineral resource complex have been singled out, and the tasks of development of the mineral resource base of the territory have been determined. The analysis of the existing system of taxation in the natural resources block is performed. The concept and mechanism of stimulating efficient development and use of mineral resources by taxes was proposed. The efficiency of financial, credit and tax mechanisms in the subsoil use was studied. Methodological recommendations on the creation of special incentive tax regimes for mining industries, taking into account their industry specifics, but on a unified methodological basis, are given.
The authors analyze the present tax system in the mining industry. They show the percentage of the Russian Federation budget which is provided by the mining industry's tax payments. The article explores the shortcomings of the tax system in the raw minerals industry of the country. The article notes that the Russian Federation tax system generally has a fiscal character and requires reformation into a taxation system, which would provide economic stimulation. A tax reform plan, which introduces the concept of 'rent  into the Russian mining industry's tax burden, has been proposed. Special attention is paid to the stimulating role of taxation on production in the mining industry.
Экологические и социальные факторы рационального использования недр предполагают осуществление ряда мероприятий по сохранению природных ресурсов для будущих поколений; по обеспечению условий техники безопасности при проведении горных работ и использованию достижений научно-технического прогресса в целях облегчения труда горнорабочих; по поддержанию благоприятной для здоровья населения экологически безопасной окружающей природной среды ...
Для решения таких проблем необходимы усилия многих специалистов разных областей знаний. В одной статье невозможно решить задачи, связанные с этой темой. Однако попытаемся выявить некоторые важнейшие вопросы, которые требуют разрешения сегодня, и наметили пути их решения ...
Сущность социалистического способа хозяйствования была сформулирована В. И. Лениным в работе «Очередные задачи Советской власти» и в ряде других работ («О продовольственном налоге», «О значении золота теперь и после полной победы социализма», в докладах на X и XI съездах партии, в речи на ѴІІ Московской губернской партийной конференции и др.) ...
Из всего многообразия конкретных задач, которые решаются в ходе осуществления экономической реформы, можно выделить одну общую главную проблему — повышение эффективности общественного производства ...