Advancement in the production of potassium fertilizers is an important strategic task of Russian agricultural industry. Given annually growing production rates, the reserves of discovered potassium-magnesium salt deposits are noticeably decreasing, which creates the need to ensure stable replenishment of the resource base through both the discovery of new deposits and the exploitation of deep-lying production horizons of the deposits that are already under development. In most cases, deposits of potassium-magnesium salts are developed by underground mining. The main problem for any salt deposit is water. Dry salt workings do not require any additional reinforcement and can easily withstand rock pressure, but with an inflow of water they begin to collapse intensively – hence, special attention is paid to mine waterproofing. Determination of spatial location, physical and mechanical properties of the aquifer and water-blocking stratum in the geological section represent an important stage in the exploration of a salt deposit. The results of these studies allow to validate an optimal system of deposit development that will minimize environmental and economic risks. On the territory of Russia, there is a deposit of potassium-magnesium salts with a unique geological structure – its production horizon lies at a considerable depth and is capped by a regional aquifer, which imposes significant limitations on the development process. To estimate parameters of the studied object, we analyzed the data from CDP seismic reflection survey and a suite of methods of radioactive and acoustic well logging, supplemented with high-frequency induction logging isoparametric sounding (VIKIZ) data. As a result of performed analysis, we identified location of the water-bearing stratum, estimated average thickness of the aquifers and possible water-blocking strata. Based on research results, we proposed methods for increasing operational reliability of the main shaft in the designed mine that will minimize the risks of water breakthrough into the mine shaft.
The possibilities of GPR method to assess the degree of fracturing rocks. The mathematical modeling of the wave electromagnetic fields of rock fracture arrays. We formulate the classification of the wave electromagnetic fields on the rock mass, with varying degrees of fracturing. The prospects of applying the method of GPR in the study of rock fractures.
The GPR-method showing high resolution, great performance and sensitivity to minor variations in the composition and conditions of soils and material has assumed a role of the leading geophysical method for looking at the upper part of the geological section. This paper presents the advanced directions of GPR prospecting for engineering problems solution.
Results of the first application of GPR surveys of a mine cage for the purpose of an estimation of a technical condition barring and outbarring spaces on an example of a ventilating trunk «VC-1», mine «Octyabr’skiy» are considered.
A method of localization of concealed cavities on the basis of studying of the reflected electromagnetic impulses is considered in the paper. An issue of early detecting of concealed cavities in engineering facilities is a critical one due to a significant influence on further serviceability of a structure. Problems of localization of concealed cavities in the soil body under the concrete slabs of hydropower stations were studied; the results of ground radar detecting investigations of the cavities, physical simulation of a cavity as well as a mathematical modeling of a reflected signal are presented. Modern subsurface radar detection provides methods which allow to reliably detect concealed cavities in the soil. However, it is possible only in case of a clear boundary between the adjacent layers that conditions a jump of dielectric permeability. In the result of an abrupt change of dielectric permeability a reflected wave occurred; the existence of subsurface heterogeneity is conditioned by the properties of this wave. Moreover, the greater is the difference between the values of dielectric permeability in the adjacent layers, the larger amplitude the reflected wave will have. If the cavity is at the stage of forming, i.e. it is filled with the soil of reduced density, then there is no clear boundary at the border of the layers which will condition a gradual change of dielectric permeability with depth. In this case an amplitude of a reflected wave will be minimal and a formation signal will be masked out by jamming signals reflected from various heterogeneities. In such case to determine a cavity at the stage of forming seems to be impossible. To determine poor signals an analysis of a phase of a reflected signal may be used; phase alters in compliance with the reflection coefficient change pattern. The article contains information about signals reflected from the heterogeneities and a conclusion regarding a possibility of detecting cavities in the soil on the basis of a method of coherent processing of signals is made.