The evolution and ore content of granitoid magmatism in the Far East belt of lithium-fluoric granites lying in the Russian sector of the Pacific ore belt have been studied. Correlation of intrusive series in the Novosibirsk-Chukotka, Yana-Kolyma and Sikhote-Alin granitoid provinces of the studied region allowed to establish the unity of composition, evolution, and ore content of the Late Mesozoic granitoid magmatism. On this basis, a model of the type potentially ore-bearing intrusive series of the Far East belt of lithium-fluoric granites has been developed: complexes of diorite-granodiorite and granite formations → complexes of monzonite-syenite and granite-granosyenite formations → complexes of leucogranite and alaskite formations → complexes of rare-metal lithium-fluoric granite formation. The main petrological trend in granitoid evolution is increasing silicic acidity, alkalinity, and rare-metal-tin specialization along with decreasing size and number of intrusions. At the end of the intrusive series, small complexes of rare-metal lithium-fluoric granites form. The main metallogenic trend in granitoid evolution is an increasing ore-generating potential of intrusive complexes with their growing differentiation. Ore-bearing rare-metal-granite magmatism of the Russian Far East developed in the Late Cretaceous and determined the formation of large tungsten-tin deposits with associated rare metals: Ta, Nb, Li, Cs, Rb, In in areas with completed intrusive series. Incompleteness of granitoid series of the Pacific ore belt should be considered as a potential sign of blind rare-metal-tin mineralization. The Far East belt of lithium-fluoric granites extends to the Chinese and Alaskan sectors of the Pacific belt, which allows the model of the type ore-bearing intrusive series to be used in the territories adjacent to Russia.
We have investigated tectonic and magmatic factors of Li-F granites localization of the East of Russia. The study is based on the ideas of Far Eastern geologists about the deep structures of intraplate activity. A model of a source structure with mantle heat sources and ore-forming magmatic complexes was used. We carried out a special metallogenic analysis of the East of Russia as applied to the rare metal-tin-bearing formation of subalkaline leucogranites, including Li-F ones. Source structures are the main factor in the tectonic and magmatic development of the East of Russia, localization of ore-forming granites and the formation of rare-metal-tin ore regions. On deep layers of source structures there are areas of the mantle and earth's crust decompaction, heat, magmas and fluids sources, as well as granitoid cryptobatholiths. Relatively large massifs of leucogranites, small intrusions of tin monzonitoids and Li-F granites are concentrated near the modern surface. The source structures correspond to the rank of the ore region. The source structures in the South of the region are: Badzhalskaya, Miao-Chanskaya, Ippato-Merekskaya, Hogdu-Lianchlinskaya, Arminskaya, etc.; in the North: Pevekskaya, Kuiviveem-Pyrkakayskaya, Kuekvun-Ekiatapskaya, Iultinskaya, Telekayskaya, Central Polousnaya, Omsukchanskaya, etc. Three types of ore regions have been identified according to the degree of source structures and Li-F granites erosion. We have also outlined the patterns of source structures evolution and their place in the geological history of ore-bearing granites. A classification of source structures and its comparison with the classifications of regional intrusives and metallogenic subdivisions are proposed. It has been established that, despite the diversity of tectonic, geological and petrological settings in the East of Russia, the intrusions of Li-F granites are regulated by the same tectonic and magmatic factors. The tectonic and magmatic factors of Li-F granites localization in the East of Russia are identified and classified as geophysical, orogenic, geoblock, magmatic, metasomatic and disjunctive.
We investigated the deep structure of the lithosphere and the geodynamic conditions of granitoid magmatism in the Eastern Russia within the borders of the Far Eastern Federal District. The relevance of the work is determined by the need to establish the geotectonic and geodynamic conditions of the granitoids petrogenesis and ore genesis in the Russian sector of the Pacific Ore Belt. The purpose of the article is to study the deep structure of the lithosphere and determine the geodynamic conditions of granitoid magmatism in the East of Russia. The author's data on the magmatism of ore regions, regional granitoids correlations, archive and published State Geological Map data, survey mapping, deep seismic sounding of the earth's crust, gravimetric survey, geothermal exploration, and other geophysical data obtained along geotraverses. The magma-controlling concentric geostructures of the region are distinguished and their deep structure is studied. The connection of plume magmatism with deep structures is traced. The chain of concentric geostructures of Eastern Russia controls the trans-regional zone of leucocratization of the earth's crust with a width of more than 1000 km, which includes the Far Eastern zone of Li-F granites. Magmacontrolling concentric geostructures are concentrated in three granitoid provinces: Novosibirsk-Chukotka, Yano-Kolyma, and Sikhote-Alin. The driving force of geodynamic processes and granitoid magmatism was mantle heat fluxes in the reduced zones of the lithospheric slab. The distribution of slab windows along the Pacific mobile belt's strike determines the location of concentric geostructures and the magnitude of granitoid magmatism in the regional provinces. Mantle diapirs are the cores of granitoid ore-magmatic systems. The location of the most important ore regions of the Eastern Russia in concentric geostructures surrounded by annuli of negative gravity anomalies is the most important regional metallogenic pattern reflecting the correlation between ore content and deep structure of the earth's crust.
The research focused on the composition of tourmaline from tin ore deposits and ore occurrences within the Verkhneurmiysky ore cluster in the Amur region. The aim of the study is to determine the indicative signs of tourmaline from cassiterite-quartz and cassiterite-silicate formations. This research is based on the materials of a long-term study of the mineralogy of the Far East deposits, conducted at the Mining University under the scientific supervision of Professor Yu.B.Marin. The relevance of the study involves predicting of tin and associated mineralization. For the first time, SIMS and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to study tourmaline from this region. We identified the typomorphic characteristics of the tourmaline composition, which are proposed to be used as indicators of tin-ore deposits. Typomorphic characteristics of tourmaline from cassiterite-quartz formation: schorl (Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.06) with a high content of Al and K; Fe 3+ /(Fe 3+ + Fe 2+ ) = 0.03; Z Fe 3+ = 1 %; impurities: Nb, LREE (La, Ce, Pr), Be, Bi, F, Li, and Mn; LREE content > 9 ppm; positive Gd anomaly. Typomorphic characteristics of tourmaline from cassiterite-silicate formation: schorl-dravite (Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.22) with a high Ca content; Fe 3+ / (Fe 3+ + Fe 2+ ) = 0.17; Z Fe 3+ = 9 %; impurities: Zr, Y, Cr, V, Sn, In, Pb, W, Mo, Ti, HREE, Eu, Sr, Sb, and Sc; the content of Y is > 2 ppm, of HREE is > 3 ppm, Eu is > 0.1 ppm. The formation conditions of the cassiterite-silicate ore mineralization were more oxidizing than those of the cassiterite-quartz one. Tourmaline, formed under oxidizing conditions, contains such impurities as Sn, In, Nb, Bi, Sc, and LREE. The content of Sn isomorphic impurity in tourmaline reaches 8000 ppm.