Extensive and important class of multilayer shell structures is three-layer structures. In a three-layer structure, a rigid filler plays an important role, due to which the bearing layers are spaced that gives the layer stack high rigidity and durability with a relatively low weight. By combining the thicknesses of the bearing layers and the filler, the desired properties of a three-layer shell structure can be achieved. Compared with traditional single-walled, three-layer construction has increased rigidity and durability, which allows reducing the thickness and weight of the shells. In order to reduce the metal content of the spherical reservoir for storing liquefied gases, this work considers the design of a double-walled reservoir, in which the inter-wall space is filled with reinforced polyurethane. Numerical modeling made it possible to determine the parameters of the stress-strain state of the structure with an error of no more than 5 %. It has been established on the example of a reservoir with a volume of 4000 m 3 that the spatial structure of the spherical reservoir wall can reduce the metal content up to 19 %. Field of application for the research results is the assessment of the stress-strain state of spherical reservoirs at their designing. Method for building the structure of a double-walled spherical reservoir in the SCAD software has been developed, which allows calculating the stress-strain state (SSS) by the finite element method. Numerical model of a double-walled spherical reservoir has been developed. It was found that to obtain calculation results with an error of P ≤ 5 % the size of the final element should not exceed 300×300×δ mm. Design of a double-walled spherical reservoir was investigated. Design parameters have been established to ensure the operational reliability of the structure with a decrease in metal content in comparison with a single-wall reservoir by 19 %.
The article deals with safe operation issues of vertical steel reservoirs with an internal floating roof when storing volatile oil products. The purpose of the work is to study the influence of ventilation openings area and wind speed on the duration of explosive state of vertical reservoirs with an internal floating roof. The influence of ventilation pipes' dimensions and the wind speed on the duration of explosive state of the reservoir has been studied. Method for calculating this time is proposed. It is shown that natural ventilation of the reservoir gas space is caused by the effect of two forces, which are formed due to: 1) the density difference between the vapor-air mixture in the reservoir and outside air; 2) wind pressure occurring on the roof of the reservoir. An algorithm for calculating the duration of reservoir being in an explosive state with wind pressure and no wind is obtained. The greater the difference in geodetic marks of the central and peripheral nozzles, the more efficient the ventilation. This distance will be greatest if the lower ventilation pipes are located on the upper belt of the reservoir or the reservoir is equipped with an air drain. Increase in wind speed of more than 10 m/s does not significantly affect the duration of the reservoir being in an explosive state. Increasing the diameter of the central nozzle from 200 to 500 mm can significantly reduce the duration of the reservoir degassing in windless weather.