The paper examines the influence of capillary pressure and water saturation ratio gradients on the size of the two-phase filtration zone during flooding of a low-permeable reservoir. Variations of water saturation ratio s in the zone of two-phase filtration are associated with the pressure variation of water injected into the reservoir; moreover the law of variation of water saturation ratio s ( r , t ) must correspond to the variation of injection pressure, i.e. it must be described by the same functions, as the functions of water pressure variation, but be subject to its own boundary conditions. The paper considers five options of s ( r , t ) dependency on time and coordinates. In order to estimate the influence of formation and fluid compressibility, the authors examine Rapoport – Lis model for incompressible media with a violated lower limit for Darcy’s law application and a time-dependent radius of oil displacement by water. When the lower limit for Darcy’s law application is violated, the radius of the displacement front depends on the value of capillary pressure gradient and the assignment of s function. It is shown that displacement front radii contain coefficients that carry information about physical properties of the reservoir and the displacement fluid. A comparison of two-phase filtration radii for incompressible and compressible reservoirs is performed. The influence of capillary pressure gradient and functional dependencies of water saturation ratio on oil displacement in low-permeable reservoirs is assessed. It is identified that capillary pressure gradient has practically no effect on the size of the two-phase filtration zone and the share of water in the arbitrary point of the formation, whereas the variation of water saturation ratio and reservoir compressibility exert a significant influence thereupon.
In order to study the process of fluid filtration during flooding of an oil field, article uses Rapoport – Lis model of non-piston oil displacement by water. During plane-radial filtration in a homogeneous formation, radii of disturbance zones are determined with and without taking into account the end effect. Influence of changes in value of capillary pressure gradient on distribution of water saturation coefficient in the non-piston displacement zone for high and low permeability reservoirs is revealed. Application of an element model for a five-point injection and production well placement system showed that, using traditional flooding technology, flat-radial fluid filtration is transformed into rectilinear-parallel. At solving equation of water saturation, Barenblatt method of integral relations was used, which allows determining the transformation time. By solving the saturation equation for rectilinear-parallel filtration, change in the value of water saturation coefficient at bottomhole of production well for an unlimited and closed deposit is determined. It is shown that an increase in water cut coefficient of a production well is possible only for a closed formation. To determine coefficient of water saturation in a closed deposit, a differential equation with variable coefficients is obtained, an iterative solution method is proposed. In the element of the five-point system, oil-saturated zones not covered by development were identified. For channels of low filtration resistance, conditions for their location in horizontal and vertical planes are established. It is shown that, at maintaining formation pressure, there is an isobar line in formation, corresponding to initial formation pressure, location of which determines direction of fluid crossflow rates. Intensity of crossflows affects application efficiency of hydrodynamic, physical and chemical, thermal and other methods of enhanced oil recovery.
The paper discusses the results of interpreting well tracer studies. It is shown that from the law of mass conservation it follows that when filtering a volume of an indicator, part of the injected tracer flows into the matrix. With the flow of fluid containing the indicator from the low-filtration resistance channel (LFR) into the surrounding matrix, the linear dimensions of the flow area depend on the permeability and porosity properties of the high-permeability channel and the matrix. While another part of the tracer moves toward the production well, its mass is lost due to diffusion processes. From the solution of the diffusion equation, it follows that the initial concentration of the tracer decreases in the course of filtration along the LFR channel. To interpret the results of the tracer studies, different cases of the LFR channels' location in the volume of the productive formation are considered. The varied parameter w allows characterizing the presence of several peaks in the concentration of the indicator and calculation the filtration parameters of the LFR channels. Depending on the known technological indices, several methods for determining pore volumes in the LFR channels have been proposed. To reduce the water cut in producing wells and to apply the technology of changing or aligning the injectivity profiles, calculations of the pore channels' radii in the mass of highly permeable seams are presented. It is shown that the volume of the chemical reagent pumped into the injection well to isolate the LFR channel is affected by the linear dimensions of the drainage area for the aqueous solution of indicator. Examples of the calculation for the permeability and porosity parameters of the LFR, the volume of pore channels necessary to isolate water inflow, and the radii of pore filtration channels, which influence the selection of the size of chemical reagent molecules, are given.