Article presents investigations on the development of a drilling mud composition for directional wells in an oil field located in the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia). Various rheological models of fluid flow and their applicability for drilling muds are analyzed. Laboratory experiments to measure the main rheological parameters of a solution, such as plastic viscosity, dynamic shear stress, as well as indicators of non-linearity and consistency are presented. On the basis of laboratory investigations, it was concluded that high molecular weight polymer reagents (for example, xanthan gum) can give tangible pseudoplastic properties to the washing fluid, and their combination with a linear high molecular weight polymer (for example, polyacrylamide) reduces the value of dynamic shear stress. Thus, when selecting polymer reagents for treating drilling muds at directional drilling, it is necessary to take into account their structure, molecular weight and properties. Combination of different types of reagents in the composition of the drilling mud can lead to a synergistic effect and increase the efficiency of the drilling process as a whole.