Rare earth elements (REEs) are valuable and strategically important in many high-technology areas, such as laser technology, pharmacy and metallurgy. The main methods of REE recovery are precipitation, extraction and sorption, in particular ion exchange using various sorbents, which allow to perform selective recovery and removal of associated components, as well as to separate rare earth metals with similar chemical properties. The paper examines recovery of ytterbium in the form of coordination compounds with Trilon B on weakly basic anion exchange resin D-403 from nitrate solutions. In order to estimate thermodynamic sorption parameters of ytterbium anionic complexes, ion exchange process was carried out from model solutions under constant ionic strength specified by NaNO 3 , optimal liquid to solid ratio, pH level, temperatures 298 and 343 K by variable concentrations method. Description of thermodynamic equilibrium was made using mass action law formulated for ion exchange equation and mathematically converted to linear form. Values of equilibrium constants, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of the sorption process have been calculated. Basing on calculated values of Gibbs energy, a sorption series of complex REE ions with Trilon B was obtained over anion exchange resin D-403 from nitrate solutions at temperature 298 K. Sorption characteristics of anion exchange resin have been estimated: total capacity, limiting sorption of complex ions, total dynamic capacity and breakthrough dynamic capacity.
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium states of systems Na 2 O–Al 2 O 3 –H 2 O and K 2 O–Al 2 O 3 –H 2 O are crucial for establishing key technological parameters in alumina production and their optimization. Due to a noticeable discrepancy between experimental results and thermodynamic calculations based on materials of individual researchers the necessity of systematization and statistical processing of equilibrium data in these systems to create a reliable base of their physicochemical state, analysis and mathematical modeling of phase equilibria is substantiated. The tendency to a decrease of the hydration degree of solid sodium aluminates with increasing temperature and the transition of systems from the steady state of gibbsite to equilibrium with boehmite is revealed. The paper contains approximating functions that provide high-precision description of equilibrium isotherms in technologically significant area of Na 2 O–Al 2 O 3 –H 2 O and K 2 O–Al 2 O 3 –H 2 O concentrations. Approximating function can be simplified by dividing the isotherm into two sections with the intervals of alkaline content 0-0.25 and 0.25-0.4 mole/100 g of solution. The differences in solubility isotherms for Na 2 O–Al 2 O 3 –H 2 O and K 2 O–Al 2 O 3 –H 2 O systems provide are associated with changes in the ionic composition solutions that depends on concentration and temperature, as well as differences connecting with alkali cation hydration, which is crucially important for thermodynamic modeling of equilibria under consideration.