Development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic is one of the priority tasks for the economy of the Russian Federation; however, such projects are associated with significant risks for the environment of nearby regions. Large-scale development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic should be based on the principles of sustainable development, which imply a balance between socio-economic benefits and environmental risks. The purpose of this study is to analyze the gaps in scientific knowledge on the issues of assessing sustainability of Arctic oil and gas projects (OGPs) and systematize the key problematic elements of such assessments. The analysis was carried out in terms of four key elements that determine the feasibility of implementing Arctic OGPs in the context of sustainable development: economic efficiency, social effects, environmental safety and technological availability. The methodology for conducting bibliometric analysis, which included more than 15.227 sources from the Scopus database over the period of 2005-2020, was based on PRISMA recommendations for compiling systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Methodological problems of assessing sustainability of Arctic OGPs were mapped and divided into four key sectors: consideration of factors that determine sustainability; sustainability assessment; interpretation of assessment results; sustainability management. This map can serve as a basis for conducting a series of point studies, aimed at eliminating existing methodological shortcomings of the sustainable development concept with respect to Arctic OGPs.
Prevention of catastrophic effects of climate change is one of the most pressing challenges of this century. A prominent place in the low-carbon development system today is carbon capture and storage technology (CCS). This technology can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, leading to global warming. Effectiveness of technology has been proven through successful implementation of a number of CCS projects. CCS projects are implemented in the context of national and often international interests, consolidating efforts of many parties. Sequestration projects involve government bodies, public, industrial and scientific sectors, as well as a number of other business structures. Each participant presents his own expectations for results of the project, which can compete among themselves, creating threats to its successful implementation. World experience in implementing CCS projects indicates that opposition from a certain group of stakeholders can lead to closure of a project, therefore, interaction with environment is one of the key elements in managing such projects. This study focuses on specifics of stakeholder management in implementation of CO 2 sequestration projects. Based on the analysis of world experience, role of the state, business and society in such projects is determined, their main expectations and interests are summarized. The main groups of stakeholders of CCS and CCUS (carbon capture, utilization and storage) projects were identified, differences in their interests and incentives to participate were analyzed. It is proved that system of interaction with stakeholders should be created at the early stages of the project, while management of stakeholders is a continuous process throughout the life cycle. An author’s tool is proposed for assessing degree of stakeholder interest, the use of which allowed us to determine interaction vectors with various groups of stakeholders.
The comprehensive development of the mineral and raw materials potential of the Arctic regions of Russia is a complex strategic task requiring the use of modern methods for planning spatial development of territories. One of such methods is the organization of cluster formations as an effective tool for implementing innovation policy. Consolidating the efforts of many participants, diversified territorial clusters become the main points of growth, the multiplier effect within which has a positive impact both on the economy of the region and the country in general. The high level of risk and the significant costs of Arctic raw material projects make it impossible to implement them simply by accumulating production and financial resources, which makes it necessary to model flexible territorial production systems on the principles of integration. The article analyzes the prerequisites for the formation of cluster formations based on the resource potential of the support zones of the Russian Arctic, and the main expected effects from the creation of innovative raw Arctic clusters are revealed. During the study, the expediency of using integration mechanisms in the development of hydrocarbon reserves in technically difficult conditions of the Far North was justified. The strategic analysis of the three Arctic oil and gas projects currently implemented on the principles of clustering – Novy Port, Messoyakha, Yamal LNG, made it possible to conclude that there are sufficient external effects of projects such as creating conditions for the innovative development of related industries, the formation of a high-tech infrastructure framework in the region, the accumulation of experience in the implementation of Arctic projects, the diversification of hydrocarbon exports.