In last 20 years segment of electric drives with permanent magnet synchronous motors has increased. This type of motors has better technical characteristics compared to induction motors, but has problems in actual implementation, one of which is the requirement of rotor position data. It is possible to implement with use of sensors or without them by means of motor state observer. The paper describes problems of sensorless vector control system for permanent magnet synchronous motors. The vector control system with state observer for permanent magnet synchronous motors is described. Synthesis of sliding mode observer for rotor speed and position is presented. The algorithm is implemented by development of model in Matlab Simulink environment with support by Texas Instruments processors support blocks. Experimental comparison of results of rotor angle state calculation and the data obtained by rotor position sensors was conducted. Research objective is a development of control algorithm, which has required precision for calculation of rotor start angle, high range of speed regulation and resistance to drift of motor parameters.