The article aims at obtaining representative scientifically based data to determine parameters of a necessary-safe condition of the rock massif (RM) in underground waste diposal caverns zones, including earthquake-prone zones. The main requirements for underground caverns for hazardous waste disposal and for their construction technology are described. The subject of the research is underground solution caverns in halogen rocks. Data for justification of safe waste disposal conditions in underground salt caverns and its stages are presented. A complex approach to the solution of the research problem is described. The main aspects of dynamic influence of seismic waves on underground caverns stability are considered. Taking into account seismic-risk zoning data on the research region some significant parameters of a possible seismic impact on the experimental cavern are calculated. The article points out the necessity of superincumbent rock and surface displacement assessment for the experimental site zone using the suggested complex approach and including the analysis of surveying data and results of rock mass geomechanical modeling.
Address the major aspects of waste disposal in underground space. Are key problems of isolation of wastes in underground salt deposits? Proposed waste disposal technology, based on the use of waste for immobilization of natural mineral salts.
The basic aspects of safe mining of potash deposits is reviewed. Practical examples of the mechanism and possible consequences of violating the integrity of the waterproof rock strata are described. Use of remote non-destructive monitoring system for non-destructive integrity breeds of the waterproof rock strata is proposed.
Decision algorithm for rock mechanics problems for bottom layers of potash deposits is suggested. Flow chart for the algorithm and it’s parts is shown. The algorithm represents the method to choose excavation technology for multi-layer potash deposits.
We describe the stages in the development of the method of underground dissolution of salts from the surface through wells. Formulated the key aspects of the complex method of assessing the mechanical state of rocks in the vicinity of mining solution such as cameras located in seismically active areas of potentially suitable for storage and disposal of waste
Radioactive waste received by manufacture of electric power requires a highly reliable burial place. One of the most perspective types of storehouses is underground developments in adjournment to soluble salts, created by dissolution through chinks from the surface. Existing requirements to a burial place of radioactive waste are described as key aspects of a complex method of an assessment of a mechanical condition of rocks in vicinities of chambers- storehouses in seismically active areas which are potentially suitable for storage and burial place of waste are stated.
The basic laws of gas filtration at different stages of coal deposit mining are considered. The technique used for studying complex development of power resources of coal deposits, allowing with reference to concrete conditions to receive engineering dependences for a quantitative estimation of all key parametres of investigated processes is given. On the basis of the developed approach to complex development the algorithm of the practical solution of the problem is offered.
Methods of substantiation of a rational mining technology for the new potash horizon are presented in the paper. Progressive technological mining schemes for potash mining company «Belaruskaliy» are reviewed, as well as the geological conditions of the IV potash horizon. Basic aspects of the geomechanical substantiation of parameters of technological mining schemes for conditions of the IV potash horizon in the presence of influence of the overlying horizons are also presented. Results of modeling of the stress-and-state strain of the rock strata with production horizons are described.
Approaches to selection of technological mining schemes based on selective potash seam extraction are described. Progressive technological mining schemes for potash mining company «Belaruskaliy» and the geological conditions of the IV potash horizon are reviewed. Basic aspects of the geomechanical substantiation of parameters of technological mining schemes for conditions of the new potash horizon in the presence of influence of the overlying horizons are also presented. Guidelines for substantiation of progressive mining methods for the conditions of the IV potash horizon (Third Mine, «Belaruskaliy») are developed on the basis of the modeling of the stress-and-strain state of the rocks.
The growth in energy consumption demands increase in power output of the existing nuclear power plants and construction of the new ones. Radioactive waste requires high-reliable repositories to be disposed. One of the perspective types of the repositories is underground excavations in halogenous formations (created by underground mining or dissolution through boreholes from surface). The new method of radioactive waste disposal is offered in the paper.
The article summarizes the main factors that should be taken into account when introducing high-performance treatment complexes in the conditions of the Vorkutskoye field. The main approaches to solving this problem are analyzed, the main problematic issues are noted. The results of research based on the analysis of volumetric deformation of the massif and its influence on the filtration properties of the medium are presented, which allow us to establish a functional relationship between the parameters of the stress-strain state of the massif and its gas permeability.
The article summarizes the main factors that should be taken into account when developing a methodology to take into account the relationship between the geomechanical state of the rock formation and its filtration properties. The main approaches to solving such problems and their disadvantages are analyzed. The results of the research allow us to establish a functional relationship between the deformation-stress state of the rock formation and its gas permeability. The relationship is based on the analysis of volumetric deformation of the formation and its influence on the filtration characteristics of the medium.
Complex geologic conditions of reservoir deposits and insufficient data on the properties and structure of rock formations often lead to mine accidents. Joint mining of salt and oil formations within one mining allotment at different depths can increase the risk of mine flooding. The article presents the main methodological approaches to justify the feasibility of mining of oil deposits in the zone of salt strata spreading. The article also provides a list of the main problems, the solution of which is necessary to ensure safe joint development of oil and salt deposits.
Рассмотрены газодинамические явления, в частности внезапные выбросы угля и газа. Показана целесообразность проведения дальнейших исследований механизма выбросов с целью создания специальной, безопасной и эффективной технологии отработки газонасыщенных угольных пластов.
The concept of the developed model (algorithm) for the formation of rational balances of supply and demand of Russian regions is given. The research is aimed at ensuring rational and efficient exploitation of energy resources in Russia. In the formation of supply-demand balances of the region, the possibility of using local fuels is taken into account. The present model has been developed and preliminarily tested on the example of the Leningrad Oblast and the Komi Republic.
The problems of development of mining education in the St. Petersburg Mining Institute are considered. The main stages of their development are considered: before the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), during the war and in the post-war period. A brief characterization of these stages is given. Brief biographies of key figures who contributed to the successful formation of mining education at the St. Petersburg Mining Institute are given. The traditions of teaching mining engineering disciplines are revealed. Teaching traditions are based on both analytical and experimental and experimental-analytical teachers, whose knowledge is based primarily on their own industrial and scientific experience.
A model (algorithm) for constructing rational fuel and energy balances of Russian regions is developed. The research is aimed at ensuring the rational and efficient use of fuel and energy resources of Russia. When building the fuel and energy balance of the region the possibility of using the local fuels is taken into account. This model is built and pre-tested on the example of the Leningrad Region.
The paper describes the methodology of solving the problem of determining the degree of mutual influence of mining works on different horizons during the development of reserves of mine fields. By the example of mining three horizons of Starobinskoye deposit, the results of solving mining-geomechanical problems on the assessment of the stress-strain state (SSS) in the zones of influence of mined-out spaces of the salt massif are presented. The dependences for calculating the stress concentration coefficient at different configurations of the front of the development of mining works are proposed.
On the example of Starobinskoye deposit the criteria determining the choice of development systems and possible ways to increase the extraction of potassium reservoirs are considered. Different principal schemes of sylvinite extraction from pillars by auger drilling technology are proposed. The method of geomechanical justification of the parameters of pillar extraction is developed. The results of the estimation of the stress-strain state (STS) of pillars and their host massif for the characteristic time moments of the pillar delineation of mined-out spaces are given.
The possibility of using the ascending order of mining deep horizons of the Zapolyarnoye deposit at the Severny mine of the Kola MMC instead of the currently used descending order of development system with sub-stage ore excavation and backfilling of the mined space with solid monolithic backfill is considered. It is proposed to switch to a two-stage development of chambers with the use of combined stowing in the ascending order of excavation within the entire field: solidifying monolithic stowing of the I stage chambers and rock stowing of the II stage chambers. Monolithic solid stowing serves as a retaining wall when excavating phase II chambers. Calculations according to the Coulomb theory allow us to consider the ratio of phase I and II chambers sizes equal to 1:7 to be expedient. Replacement of solid stowing with combined stowing, most of which is represented by rock, as well as transition to increased height of chambers will reduce the cost of extracted ore and improve the geomechanical situation in the host rocks.
A brief characteristic of the Sol-Iletsk rock salt deposit is given and the main technological parameters of its mining are described. An analysis of various techniques for assessing the stability of underground dissolution chambers is performed, which showed that the use of such techniques in specific mining and geological conditions in the mining of domed deposits (by underground dissolution) does not adequately reflect the operating conditions of critical elements of the rock mass. Estimation of the stress-strain state of rocks may be done using numerical methods for solving mining-geotechnical problems: the boundary element methods, the finite element method, the finite difference method - also for mining-geological conditions of Sol-Iletsk field. Numerical solutions (based on the listed methods) quite objectively reflect the stress-strain state of salt massif in the vicinity of dissolution chambers. Modeling of technological parameters of rock salt mining by underground dissolution may be carried out by the dummy loadings method. Preliminary calculations by the mentioned method, carried out for the already worked out sections, give a rather high convergence of the calculated and observed results. The described method is implemented in the form of a computer program and will be used for further research.
The results of scientific research of the Department of Underground Mining of Mineral Deposits, carried out in 2000 on problematic issues of underground mining of coal, shale and salt deposits, are presented. The requirements to the technological schemes of reservoir development in areas with limited size when using high-capacity mechanized mining complexes are formulated. Ways of increasing the efficiency of mining thin coal seams with the use of jet installations are proposed and substantiated. The causes of dynamic collapse of the roof rocks in the lower faces of the layered systems of development are investigated. Conclusions are made about the most promising ways of development of technogenic and oil and gas fields. Recommendations on underground coal combustion for steam and power generation have been developed.
Изложена методическая оценка напряженно-деформированного состояния массива соляных пород с учетом временного фактора, даны примеры использования в прикладных задачах управления состоянием массива в окрестности выработок.
Приводятся возможные направления решения актуальное для горного производства задачи, касаюшейся получения ответов на вопросы целесообразного развития фронта очистных работ на шахтах. Предложено использовать принципы регрессионного анализа при построении математических моделей указанного процесса, приведены регрессионные уравнения для условий шахтных полей Воркутинского месторождения. Отмечена возможность использования данного принципа при выборе эффективных решений планирования горных работ при выемке оставшихся запасов месторождения с учетом основных горно-геологических факторов разработки.
Лучевая сейсмотомография используется в сейсморазведке как один из приемов интерпретации данных. С ее помощью можно восстановить детальную картину строения пород в пространстве между двумя горными выработками. Пространственное распределение затухания или скорости распростране ния упругих волн рассчитывается с помощью линейных интегралов или их аппроксимаций вдоль лучей и воспроизводится в цифровом виде. Решение больших систем линейных уравнений, связывающих измеряемые интегральные параметры и характеристики изучаемых геологических объектов, производится с помощью различных алгебраических алгоритмов. В основу анализа распространения упругих волн между выработками положены представления геометрической оптики. Возможности алгоритмов восстановления проиллюстрированы в процессе обработки экспериментальных результатов шахтных исследований. Метод позволяет воспроизводить двумерное распределение вариаций исследуемых параметров.
Спецификой калийных рудников является необходимость сохранения сплошности пород водозащитной толщи (ВЗТ), подрабатываемой в процессе ведения очистных работ ...
Актуальными задачами горной геомеханики являются задачи управления состоянием массива при применении прогрессивных систем разработки ...
Широкое применение при добыче калийных руд находят камерные системы разработки с ленточными целиками. Целики является наиболее ответственными элементами, обуславливающими как необходимую безопасность ведения горных работ, так и их технологию ...