The main trends in the global mineral complex: extraction of essential minerals, exporters, importers, and the level of competition in the global mineral resources sector. The peculiarities of the development of world mineral complex. It is demonstrated the position of Russia in the mineral complex of the world: Russia's share of world reserves and mining, Russian exports of major products mineral complex that characterizes the competitiveness of the national economy. The conclusion: Russia needs a competent government regulation of subsoil use, appropriate to market economic conditions, increasing the share of exports of value-added products and reduce dependence on imports.
The article deals with state of the mineral base oil in major oil producing countries of the world. It is considered tendencies of its changes over a long period, the factors influencing the sharp increase in proven reserves in the world in recent years. Analyzed the position of Russia among oil producing countries: the volume of proven reserves of oil, production and reproduction of mineral oil base. The results of the Russian largest oil companies: oil production, the state of mineral resources, the results of exploration are presented. It is submitted the main tendencies that affect the global demand for liquid hydrocarbons.
The problems of public-private partnership (PPP) in the subsurface are considered. There are identified problems of PPP development in field of subsoil use in different regions of Russia. It is proposed to use the methodological approaches to solving problems identified by the concentration of efforts and resources within the compact areas – mineral centers of economic development (CED).
We consider a special form of interaction between government and private business – public-private partnership (PPP). Perspectives of the development of PPP in the subsoil: geological exploration of mineral resources, reproduction and use of mineral resources in many regions are analised. Main features of the Russian version of the PPP in the mineral complex are shown. The brief review of the internationally accepted form of classification of PPP is made.
In the article the issues connected with the accession to the WTO in Russia are considered. It is noted that the role of the government in the markets of the countries acceding to the WTO reduces (in compliance with all agreements relating to fair competition) while the role of independent and state regulators on behalf of certification bodies increases. The authors think that the WTO accession won’t affect fuel and mineral resources part of export in Russia as there are no serious limitations for sale of mineral resources in the world markets. Under the condition of the accession to the WTO it is proposed to develop economic incentives for companies of the mineral resources sector in order to diversify production and implement innovations.
It is analyzed output, costs and other results of mining activity two large diamond mining enterprises: russian «Severalmaz» and foreign «De Beers – Venetia Mine». It is considered that «Severalmaz» has a huge potential for development. The possible technical, technological and organizational solutions are necessary as they permit to increase the effectiveness of the mineral mining «Severalmaz». The experience of the company «De Beers – Venetia Mine» can be used.
Examined the role of government in the economy, the relationship socio-economic functions of government and business. It is identified a combination of economic and social goals of government and business. The definitions of the social market economy is made. Examined the economic functions of the state and the degree of state regulation in the economy.
The Economic Department of the Mining Institute is 45 years old from the year of its foundation. The main stages of the department development have been considered in this article. Qualifications and fields of training for future specialists have been defined here. The set of disciplines, skills and knowledge, which all graduators have to posses, has been shown. The general trends of the scientific research of department’s scientists and their contribution to the progressing of the domestic economy have been given in the article.
In work the analysis of a state policy sphere concerning fuel and energy complex is lead. The basic lacks and features of legislative regulation and investment of Russian fuel and energy complex are noted. As a result conclusions, that reforming of the Russian legislation on bowels becomes inevitable, have been done. Directions of the legislation development on bowels should be directed on development and acceptances of the federal law about oil and gas; on realization of a control system of the state fund of bowels; on differentiation of conducting subjects in sphere of bowels studying, oil and gas exploration and extraction between authorities of a federal level and federation subjects.
Топливно-энергетический комплекс уже долгое время является основой экономического развития России. Большую часть налоговых поступлений в государственный бюджет составляют налоги от продажи нефти и газа, поэтому правительство заинтересовано в совершенствовании этой системы. В России государственная политика в сфере недропользования ориентирована на повышение эффективности использования минерально-сырьевой базы, обеспечение ее воспроизводства, рациональное и безопасное природопользование. В разы возросли объемы финансирования геолого-разведочных работ. Изложены достигнутые результаты, проблемы, которые необходимо еще решить, и предложены пути решения.
Выполнен анализ состояния топливно-энергетического комплекса России, структуры потенциальной стоимости подтвержденных извлекаемых запасов минерального сырья, годового потребления основных видов минерального сырья стран мира. Отражена роль топливно-энергетического комплекса России в развитии российской экономики. Показана связь российского топливно-энергетического комплекса России и мировой экономики. Отмечена роль топливно-энергетического комплекса во внешней торговле России.
The fuel and energy complex has always occupied a leading place in the national economy of the Russian Federation. And its problems are especially acute in modern conditions, when the concept of turning Russia into an "energy superpower" is proclaimed. It is no secret that the state of the Russian fuel and energy complex is very difficult. Russia is concluding more and more contracts for export supplies to Western European countries, and this primarily concerns oil and gas. Domestic consumption is also growing, and there is a certain deficit of some types of fuel and energy raw materials. There is also a problem that the increase in reserves of these raw materials does not cover the growing volumes of their extraction. All this is happening against the background of an outdated technical base characterized by a very high degree of wear and tear of material assets. To overcome the current situation, it is necessary to develop non-conventional energy sources, broad introduction of innovations and, above all, large-scale investments.
Some aspects of the problem of resource conservation in relation to the mining complex of Russia, taking into account the experience of countries with developed market economies. The analysis of the current state of affairs in the field of utilization of secondary mineral resources is carried out. The reasons why the use of secondary mineral resources is a significant reserve of resource saving are identified and substantiated.
The analysis of the system of state regulation of subsoil use relations between the state and economic entities (enterprises, organizations, institutions) in the use of subsoil for various purposes is given. The authorizations of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, which conducts state policy and carries out management in the field of study, use, reproduction, protection of natural resources, protection of the natural environment and ensuring environmental safety, are considered. Possible variants of the concept of reforming the subsoil legislation are proposed.
The methodological issues of improving the licensing of state subsoil use in the Russian Federation are considered. The analysis of the current mechanism of subsoil use licensing is carried out, and the drawbacks and problems adversely affecting the efficiency of functioning of the state system of subsoil use licensing are identified. It is pointed out that the disproportion of licensing of subsoil use objects is caused by the difference in profitability of extractive industries. Proposals of groups of supporters of one or another direction of the reform of the state system of licensing for the use of subsoil are considered. Possible variants of the concept of reforming the legislation on licensing of subsoil use are analyzed.
The analysis of the system of state regulation of relations between the state and economic subjects (enterprises, organizations, institutions) of subsoil use is offered. The powers of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, which conducts the state policy and manages the study, use, reproduction, protection of natural resources, environmental protection and environmental safety are considered. The structure of state regulation of relations of subsoil use is given. Possible variants of the concept of reforming the legislation on subsoils are analyzed.
Payments for natural resources, taxes, and excise duties are the most important instruments of economic regulation of relations between entrepreneurs, the state, and society. Since January 1, 2002, the law "On the tax on the extraction of minerals" adopted by the State Duma on July 13, 2001 came into force. The analysis of the changes adopted in the framework of this law and its main drawbacks are indicated in the work. Two principally different methods of determination of the mining rent are considered. The replacement of "mining" taxes and excise duties by the mining rent and payment system is proposed. Several variants of quantitative determination of differential mountain rent (natural-value, on the basis of bank interest rate) and methods of its distribution are described (complete or partial withdrawal in favor of the owner; organization of branch rent fund, the funds of which should be used for financial support of enterprises; establishment of Federal Natural Resources Bank of Russia).
The priority directions of socio-economic and organizational and legal policy in the sphere of regional management of natural resources are substantiated and highlighted. The unified principles of state management of natural resource complexes are adopted as a common methodological basis. The ways of improving the economic mechanism of regional nature management taking into account the combination of the interests of the federal center and the territories have been considered. A set of managerial tasks by the example of the Department of Natural Resources in the North-West region has been developed, the functions of the region in the sphere of management of the mineral resource complex have been singled out, and the tasks of development of the mineral resource base of the territory have been determined. The analysis of the existing system of taxation in the natural resources block is performed. The concept and mechanism of stimulating efficient development and use of mineral resources by taxes was proposed. The efficiency of financial, credit and tax mechanisms in the subsoil use was studied. Methodological recommendations on the creation of special incentive tax regimes for mining industries, taking into account their industry specifics, but on a unified methodological basis, are given.
The results of scientific research carried out at the Department of Economics in 2000 are taken into account. The research is presented in the dissertations for the degree of Candidate of Economic Sciences. The works are topical and aimed at improving the tax policy in the mineral complex (on the example of the Leningrad region); economic assessment of the prospects for the development of a coal company (Intaugol OJSC); development strategy of building materials industry (building materials industry of the Leningrad region); assessment of efficiency of production investments of operating mining and metallurgical enterprise in the market economy (JSC MMC Pechenganickel); The strategy of the fuel and energy complex under the conditions of reforming energy prices; evaluation of the effectiveness of the investment strategy of an oil producer (OAO Surgutneftegaz); optimization of the gas share in the regional fuel and energy balance (St. Petersburg); development of an internal pricing mechanism for the daily management of a mining company.
В связи с переходом к рыночным отношениям, приватизацией предприятий и организаций анализ финансового состояния предприятия должен отражать требованиям международных стандартов ...
В условиях перехода к рынку, требующему развития конкурентоспособности предприятий на региональных и мировом рынках, необходимо выбрать, какими способами измерения, контроля и управления пользоваться предприятиям и фирмам. Результатом выбора наилучшей системы показателей должна стать наивысшая результативность, под которой понимается показатель производительности.
С 1 января 1991 г. в соответствии с письмом Госплана СССР № 61-13 от 11 мая 1990 г. "Об индексах изменения норм амортизационных отчислений на полное восстановление активной части основных производственных фондов" предприятия, объединения и организации независимо от форм собственности и ведомственной подчиненности осуществляют все воды ремонтов основных фондов за счет себестоимости работ (продукции, услуг) и издержек обращения, при этом нормы амортизации на капитальный ремонт всех видов основных фондов не применяются
В условиях совершенствования хозяйственного механизма и перевода геологических организаций на самоокупаемость и самофинансирование большое внимание уделяется вопросам внедрения хозяйственного расчета в низовых структурных единицах ...
Составление проектно-сметной документации на производство геологоразведочных работ базируется на нормативной основе - справочниках укрупненных сметных норм (СУСН), изданных в 1984 г., где представлены нормы времени, нормы основных расходов на производство буровых, сопутствующих вспомогательных работ ...
В настоящее время при подготовке проектно-сметной документации на производство геолого-разведочных работ (ГРР) используется нормативная база, основанная на справочниках укрупненных сметных норм (СУСН), изданных в 1984 г. ...
Эффективность действия хозяйственного механизма во многом зависит от уровня планирования - своевременной разработки планов и их научной обоснованности. Важнейшей составной частью плана является проект и смета на проведение геолого-разведочных работ ...
Основной задачей экономических исследований на современном этапе развития геологоразведочных работ является повышение их эффективности и снижение себестоимости ...