Научной школой СПГГИ (ТУ) разрабатывается комплекс мер по защите окружающей среды от вредного воздействия технологических процессов при открытой и подземной разработке угля, который сегодня является востребованным природным энергетическим ресурсом, а в перспективе станет одним из главных, так как обеспеченность им может удовлетворить потребности всех отраслей на несколько сотен лет. Проблема стабильного обеспечения теплом и электрической энергией отдаленных территорий севера, населенных пунктов, объектов жизнедеятельности человека является трудноразрешимой на современном уровне развития топливно-энергетического комплекса России. Применение новых технологий по использованию местных возобновляемых источников энергии в малой энергетике позволит существенно приблизить энергопроизводства к потребителю и привлечь к производству тепла и электричества альтернативные виды топлива.
The basic principles of calculation of mine technical systems for regulating the thermal regime of air are outlined. A new approach to modeling of thermal conditions in the mine workings is used. Mining technical systems are presented as systems with properties changing in coordinates and time.
Mineral extraction is closely connected with the processes of human impact on the environment in order to provide raw materials and their partial loss. With the total extraction of mineral resources exceeding 6.5bn tons, the total losses in the subsoil amount to 2.5bn tons: about 50bn tons of harmful substances are emitted into the atmosphere, more than 2bn m3 of polluted waste water is discharged into water bodies and more than 8bn tons of solid waste is stored on the surface of the earth. The scientific school of SPGGI is developing a set of measures to protect the environment from the harmful effects of technological processes in open-pit and underground coal mining, which today is a demanded natural energy resource, and in the future will become one of the main ones, as its supply can satisfy the needs of all industries for several hundred years.
The results of the analysis of the environmental situation in coal-mining regions based on the assessment of the environmental capacity of the natural environment and its exhaustiveness are presented. The limiting level of coal mining within a typical administrative district in terms of area and population, providing environmental stability under the current normative indicators and applied methods and means of engineering environmental protection, is determined. A set of tasks, the solution of which at the level of the federal center by executive and legislative authorities of a particular sub-unit of the federation, or directly by the economic entities themselves will lead to a reduction in the negative impact of the coal mining industry on the environment and the health of the population of the region, is proposed.
One of the main sources of hazardous air pollution on the territories of mining and metallurgical and enrichment complexes and adjacent territories are dust-forming surfaces of dumps. As a result of wind erosion, fine fractions, which have a predominant impact on respiratory organs, are easily transported from the surface to long distances. The article proposes a method that reduces dust and dust transfer of fine materials, increases the biological productivity of dumps and their rapid reclamation.
The growth in the use of solid waste in the global industry has occurred throughout the twentieth century with varying effects in different sectors and with the aim of more efficient utilization of solid energy sources. The main suppliers of solid combustible carbon-containing wastes are mining, chemical, metallurgical, fuel and energy industries. Creation of technologies for processing and enrichment of solid combustible wastes and their use for obtaining environmentally friendly high-calorific combustibles will save labor resources and obtain a positive environmental effect, as well as increase the efficiency of fuel and energy resources use.
The most promising and practically feasible is the method of applying a fertile layer based on sapropel on the surface. The project of reducing dustiness of mining waste dumps and increasing their bioproductivity is proposed. The economic efficiency of various methods of reclamation is analyzed.
Охарактеризована научно-исследовательская работа на горном факультете Санкт-Петербургского горного института, дан краткий экскурс в историю факультета, освещены направления научных исследований на современном этапе развития факультета, приведены основные показатели научно-исследовательской деятельности.
The concept of the developed model (algorithm) for the formation of rational balances of supply and demand of Russian regions is given. The research is aimed at ensuring rational and efficient exploitation of energy resources in Russia. In the formation of supply-demand balances of the region, the possibility of using local fuels is taken into account. The present model has been developed and preliminarily tested on the example of the Leningrad Oblast and the Komi Republic.
This work is focused on creating a technological option for joint processing of BOF, blast furnace and open-hearth dusts with subsequent involvement of semi-products in the main production of Severstal and similar enterprises.
The paper presents the basics of the theory of the study of the dynamics of psychophysiological potential of personality and the use of the assessment procedure to evaluate the current state of workers of mining enterprises located in the North. Then recommendations and countermeasures to prolong the period of life activity are given.
The Leningrad Region has very insignificant reserves of the main types of fuel and energy resources, represented mainly by wood, peat, oil shale and uranium, the development of deposits of which is not planned even in the long term for environmental reasons. However, the consistent introduction of new technologies for processing fuel and energy resources, the involvement of local resources in the fuel and energy balance, primarily wood, peat and shale fuels, and the creation on this basis of processing and energy-producing complexes of local type can ensure energy security and change both the economic and demographic situation in the Leningrad region.
A model (algorithm) for constructing rational fuel and energy balances of Russian regions is developed. The research is aimed at ensuring the rational and efficient use of fuel and energy resources of Russia. When building the fuel and energy balance of the region the possibility of using the local fuels is taken into account. This model is built and pre-tested on the example of the Leningrad Region.
To date, the total amount of rock mass displaced on the planet exceeds 100 billion tons. The result of such impact is the formation of man-made massifs - geological structures, composed of rocks or sediments of anthropogenic genesis, which differ in their composition (chemical, granulometric, bacteriological) and properties (physical, mechanical, filtration, sorption, etc.) from the host rocks. Shapes and sizes of man-made massifs are determined mainly by technological processes. In areas of sulfide-containing technogenic massifs, due to waste in an oxidizing environment, the formation of acidic drainage water occurs, the processes of formation of which are complex and nonstationary, which greatly complicates the monitoring of the state of the massifs. Development and application of a new method of acid-alkaline balance, consisting in determining and comparing the acid potential and neutralization potential, formed by rock or waste, allows with high expressiveness and accuracy to monitor the situation in areas of sulfide-bearing man-made massifs, significantly reduces the time for laboratory research.
At the present time, the problem of oil pollution of soils in the territory of mining enterprises by liquid hydrocarbons is one of the most pressing. The main results of the study of oil pollution halos at some oil product storage facilities in different natural and climatic regions of the Russian plate are presented. Studies have shown that to solve various environmental problems requires a synthesis of mechanical and biological methods of remediation of soils and natural waters. Biological methods consist in the introduction of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms in the form of biopreparations with the additional introduction of biogens into the treated soil. The most rational methods of remediation should be implemented at the industrial enterprises of the North with difficult geo-temperature conditions. The method of "in situ" bioremediation is the most advantageous from environmental and economic points of view. The construction of an in-situ bioreactor with preliminary thawing of frozen soils is based on solving thermodynamic problems. Preliminary estimates of the thawing radius for different time periods (without taking into account the latent heat of phase transition) have been obtained.
The analysis of the impact of environmental factors on the occupational injury rate of employees of mining enterprises of the North was carried out. A comprehensive "benchmark" method of injury risk assessment using a multiplicative model, which takes into account the superposition of the acting factors of different nature and at the same time is simple enough to be applied, has been proposed. The proposed approach makes it possible to move from a point risk assessment to a probabilistic one. The risk at the reference enterprise is supposed to be conditioned by objective factors that do not depend on the actions of personnel: the depth of work, the properties of the massif, fracturing, gas content, susceptibility bleedings, blowouts, dip angle, reservoir thickness. When calculating the risk for the real enterprise, it is supposed to take into account the effect of subjective factors.
Work was carried out to study the impact of ferrous metallurgy enterprises on the environment and to create a technology for the utilization of poor zinc-containing dusts. The choice of the Waelz process as a technology for utilization of poor zinc-containing dusts from blast-furnace, converter and open-hearth furnaces with regard to the conditions of OAO Severstal (Cherepovets) was made. The main goal of the work is to create a mathematical model of the process with subsequent evaluation of its adequacy by means of experimental installations. The model is planned to be used for choosing the optimal technological parameters of the process in the utilization of this type of material. A generalized mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a Waelz kiln has been developed. The experimental evaluation of the adequacy of this mathematical model was conducted on the laboratory furnaces for drying pellets in fixed and rotating layers. The main directions of further research are defined.
Mining and mining-processing enterprises are one of the most intensive sources of environmental pollution by solid wastes, which make up more than 90% of the volume of mined mineral raw materials. The result of such impact is the formation of technogenic massifs. Comparative analysis of the results of monitoring of technogenic massifs has allowed us to identify a number of regularities of their impact on the natural environment: The technogenic array is a lithochemical halo of pollution; The result of dust and gas emission from the surface of the anthropogenic massif is the formation of atmochemical and redeposited lithochemical pollution halos, pollution of vegetation and near-surface sediments; Temporary and permanent flows from the anthropogenic massif carry out and re-deposited rocks, which causes the formation of hydro- and lithochemical pollution flows; Infiltration of natural waters through technogenic sediments leads to the formation of hydrogeochemical halos and pollution flows.
Atmospheric emissions of harmful substances during the development of mineral deposits by open-cut mining mainly include mechanical (dust) and chemical impurities. Among the latter, depending on the technology of works, carbon oxides, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, etc. prevail.
The results of the analysis of the character of the growth with depth of methane content in beds and host rocks of coal deposits in the Pechora basin and the factors affecting it are presented. On the basis of field measurements of methane emission dynamics in the mine workings of a number of mines of the Vorkuta coal field and their statistical processing the effect of the increase in the relative methane emission by increasing the size of the mined-out space - the number of the waste pillars and the distance of the working face from the cut mine working is shown. The efficiency of the degassing schemes used to reduce gas release from the surrounding rock masses under development is analyzed. Geomechanical and gasdynamic models of a complexly structured undermined rock mass are proposed, allowing to justifiably calculate parameters of permeability distribution over its volume, air leakage fluxes from the cleaning face and gas-air mixture in the mined-out spaces.
Permanent accumulation of carbonaceous waste at coal mining and forestry enterprises in volumes comparable to those of primary recovery has a great impact on the environment. Even an environmental disaster can be foreseen in the near future. Large volumes of accumulated carbonaceous waste represent a valuable source of energy. Their effective processing will save large amounts of energy resources - oil, natural gas, coal and shale oil, which are the basis of the fuel and energy balance of Russia, and bring a large income. It is estimated that the annual shortage of refined fuel in the amount of about 10 million tons for the public utilities for the period until 2005 can be closed by the production of briquette fuel using recycled carbonaceous waste - waste from sawing and lumbering and shale deposits in the Leningrad region. Processing of sawmill and logging waste, shale oil into briquette fuel is possible at the cost of modern technologies and equipment, as well as unconventional technological solutions (compression of briquette mixture using uniaxial compression in hydraulic presses or compression "endless wedge" in extrusion presses).
Изложены результаты натурных, лабораторных и аналитических исследований динамики утечек воздуха, метана и пыли в выработанном пространстве добычных участков угольных шахт. Установлены закономерности формирования взрывоопасных зон в горных выработках и прилегающем к нам выработанном пространстве.
Проанализированы материалы аналитических, лабораторных и шахтных исследований процессов сушки и увлажнения аэрогелей угольной пыли, а также изучено влияние влажности на их взрываемость. Изложена методика выбора параметров средств генерации пара для конденсационного увлажнения отложений угольной пыли в выработках, которая обеспечивает защиту от взрывов и детонации.
Как известно, на устойчивость целиков существенное влияние оказывают неоднородность пород, наличие различного рода прослойков, включений и льда. Для уточнения этого влияния в лаборатории горного давления ЛГИ в 1963—1967 гг. был проведен комплекс исследований, включающий изучение несущей способности целиков со слабыми прослойками других пород и включениями льда для условий Аркагалинского, Сангарского, Джебарики-Хая месторождений угля и сланцевского месторождения Прибалтики ...
Характерной особенностью месторождений, расположенных в зоне многолетней мерзлоты, является цементация породных блоков льдом, который заполняет межслоевые трещины и трещины, секущие породные слои, что способствует консолидации слоев и ведет к увеличению несущей способности массива в целом ...