The article presents the results of a study of the internal structure of highly elongated diamond crystals from placers in the Krasnovishersky district of the Urals. Very elongated crystals are found within diamond-bearing placer with unrevealed primary sources. Determining the conditions of such crystals formation can help one to determine the primary deposits type. There are three hypotheses for the formation of the elongated shape of such crystals: 1) crys- tals initially elongated along the <100> (strongly distorted octahedra); 2) individual crystals of columnar aggregates; 3) elongated crystals fragments. To study the internal structure, we selected three most elongated individuals of the 155 crystals samples. The study of the internal structure of selected crystals with the usage of photoluminescent (PL) tomography, cathodoluminescence (CL), and optical microscopy has shown that these samples are fragments of lar- ger single crystals. CL imaging allowed to determine slip lines within the crystal's volume. The recorded PL spectra show the 912, 946, and 986 nm peaks, which are characteristic of crystals with plastic deformation. The revealed fea- tures are indicators of plastic deformation accompanying the destruction of the crystals. The significant dissolution following the destruction of the crystals led to the rounding of the vertices and edges of their fragments. Apparently, most of the very elongated crystals from placers with unknown sources are also highly dissolved isometric crystal fragments. The obtained results have shown that the deformation and dissolution of diamond crystals are related events characteristic of diamonds from hitherto undetected, but highly productive primary deposits.
Historically developed and non-compliant with modern conditions, the structure of industry placement and related inequality in economic development of certain territories are additional negative factors that hinder economic development of the country. Hence, the search for new organizational forms and methods of territorial development, facilitation of industrial growth in regions with mineral resources specialization become more and more relevant. Another no less important issue is justification of economic feasibility of using such tools and assessment of critical consequences of their application. Suggested by the authors, game theory model of state investment into territories of advanced development describes the method of limited resources distribution and becomes an instrument to assess the feasibility of investment into creation of advanced development territories under the conditions of insufficient information and actions of specific interest groups. Application of the suggested game theory model of state investment into creation of advanced development territories allows to forecast behavior of program participants, to model consequences of management decisions both for government structures and separate program participants.
Organization of efficient economic activity in the Arctic zone requires development of human potential, transport infrastructure, exploitation of natural resources under the conditions of greatest possible environmental safety. In order to choose preferable trends of economic development and to provide efficiency of operations in the Arctic zone it is crucial to perform research in the areas of industrial efficiency upgrading and rational use of fuel, energy, mineral, chemical and biological resources of the Ocean and littoral areas of Russian Arctic. The paper analyzes major trends in the research on increasing economic efficiency of operations aimed at territory development in the Arctic zone. The authors justify the need to examine economic problems of rational resource use in the Arctic zone of Russia based on the proposed system of resource-estimation indicators and their application in establishing a mechanism of rational resource use with a due regard to protection of the marine environment. The paper also focuses on methodological problems of the target programme approach to complex development of the Arctic zone, creation of target programmes, industrial development and rational use of natural resources. The authors give rationale for the key task in this area – development of methodological principles of forming federal and regional target programmes, aimed at exploration, exploitation and rational use of natural resources in the Arctic zone of Russian Federation. An analysis is provided that focuses on the problems of creating a scientifically justified hierarchical system of programmes and regional regulations, creation of a scientific information data bank and other methodological issues.
In the following article, we have studied the variations of natural irradiation of diamond crystals. The natural diamonds in some cases show homogeneous green colour, caused by irradiation of the entire crystals volume. Radiation damage effects, produced by the low-radiation doses, are detected by the luminescence of the GR1 system. The high-radiation doses cause bluish hue, turning into a greenish colour, while the maximum level of volume irradiation produces the black crystals. The crystals with homogeneous volumetric black colour distribution were also studied. The major source of radiation in such cases may represent a local stream containing water rich in 222 Rn and its decay products. There is a review of the geological environment in which diamonds could be irradiated due to the decay of the 222 Rn containing in water.
This paper examines problems related to forming a complex of indicators to assess innovation potential of an industrial enterprise, on the example of coal industry enterprises, and an integral indicator of innovation potential, used for comparative analysis of the state of affairs in the industry. Analysis of different approaches to defining the term «innovation potential» for industrial enterprises has been carried out; resource-based, resultative, integrative and capacitive approaches have been highlighted, the latter one based on assessment of enterprise capacities. A conclusion has been made regarding advantages of integrative approach. Research has been made on the role of industry in the fuel and power sector of China and dynamics of industry and enterprise development in Shanxi province. Basing on suggested approach a system of assessment principles has been formulated, taking into account specific features of coal industry enterprises. Complex of indicators to assess innovation potential has been developed using expert evaluation method. An expertise procedure is proposed to assess competence of experts; results obtained from the expertise are presented. Proposed complex of indicators includes 23 parameters combined into three groups. Testing of proposed complex of indicators has been carried out on the example of coal industry in Shanxi province (China). Application of all stated principles has been proved in the process of indicator selection, assessment and formulation of recommendations for subsequent innovation potential management of coal industry enterprises. Proposed approach to forming a complex of indicators of innovation potential for industry enterprises permits to link together the logic of innovation potential definition, formation of the system of its principles, selection of the indicators complex for assessment and subsequent innovation potential management of the enterprise.
There is full rationale of the phenomenological model of complicated riphean fractured carbonate reservoirs of Yurubcheno-Tokhomskaya oil-gas bearing area, created for simulation of development process for unique oil and gas deposits. The block discrete organization of these complex structure reservoirs are allow them non-additive and non-linear properties under development. Their marked similarity of their structure in a wide range of sizes, as well as the phenomenon of self-organization characteristic of complex nonequilibrium systems. Based on these production rates and their total cumulative production within such hydrocarbon obey a power law distribution, which is characteristic of the behavior of many nonlinear systems and can be described by Pareto. To implement the suggested model has been written special computer program compatible with the hydrodynamic simulation «Tempest MORE» of «Roxar».
Uralian, Anabar, and Brazilian diamond collections were studied by infrared spectrometry method. For reconstruction of thermal conditions of diamond formation were plotted Taylor Wayne diagrams with calculated isothermal curves. Diagrams of B2-defects distribution and H-centres were done. The conclusion about thermal formation conditions and possible belonging to the sea stream gravels were done.
Acting in Russia methodology of estimation and expert’s examination of calculated mineral reserves has been organized in the Soviet period, during development of the rigidly centralized system of the state planning and management. Since, 20 years there isn’t in the country any state monopoly (and financing) in the mining brunch and geological exploration. The new approaches are needed in procedure of estimating mineral reserves explored by the private enterprises. Anyway, functions, which the State Commission on mineral reserves (SCR) used to carry out in the Soviet time, remain nearly the same at present. Its full-scale authority, obligatory specifications are in clear contradiction with real economic relationship in the country. Computer modeling of ore bodies, composed on the base of geostatistical analysis of the exploration data, determines their natural contours and the ore grade distribution far more precisely than the formal index of the reserve’s category. There isn’t any necessity to approve in the SCR the so called group of the ore deposit complexity, nor the Technical-economic validation of limiting conditions. The mere procedure of the state approval of explored ore reserves ought to have the record keeping character.
The problem to increase of deposit oil recovery with difficult stocks high-viscosity oil and bitumens is considered. Results of experimental research to decrease the effective viscosity of oil samples and increase in mobility are considered at influence of superheated steam with addition in the heat-carrier of insignificant volumes of reagent (kerosene, diesel fuel) in 0,001-0,02 % of weight. It is recommended to apply thermal and plasma-pulse influence on a layer to increase of oil recovery. Results of practical technology application are given in several geological conditions.
Review of the up-to-date state of the mineral resources base of uranium shows that the current value of uranium production from the Russian ore deposits can not supply even the country’s internal needs as at present so in the close five year future. In the vastest country, any large nor super-large uramum ore deposit was not discovered during last two decades or more. Actually advised for prospecting areas have within their limits an appraised amount of 5-10 thousand tons of the metal as hypothetical resources (Pi category), which indicates the principally low potential of those territories, the low probability to discover there some large uranium ore bodies. The situation needs to research some ways for more effective forecasting of promising uranium-bearing structures. For the purpose, the principal commercial type of uranium deposits are considered on the base of analysis of their ore-forming and uranium-concentrating processes. By example of the unique ore bodies of the Athabasca region, there are distinguished several, disengaged in time, preparative and concentrating processes subsequently participating in the uranium ore forming. Comparison of deposits in the Athabasca province and the Ladoga region shows that in the latter ones ore bodies are connected with the lesser number of oregenerating processes, and thus, those objects have the lower uranium-bearing potential. In the whole, analysis of the actual state of the uranium mineral resources base and the potential uranium-bearing of the Russia’s geological structures leads to conclusion about necessary strengthening of geological trend in metallogeny-forecasting and prospecting for uranium. It means development of the complex geological, geophysical, mineralogical-geochemical and some other typees of investigations aimed for revealing of the structural-substantial peculiarities in the uranium-promising formations and geological structures, as well as to thorough study of the ore-forming systems evolution.
Globalization of the world economy has started first of all within the mineral resources market which is dominated many years by transnational corporations. Expansion of mining areas through national borders, of partnership between domestic and foreign companies is accompanied by development of national and international standards for reporting of mineral resources and available ore reserves. There are, among the most authoritative codes, the Australasian JORC Code and the Model Code of Combined committee CRIRSCO. In Russia (USSR) the Classification of explored reserves has been approved by the State for the First Five-Year Plan – for purpose of the completely centralized record keeping of the country mineral resources. Since, during its «socialist evolution» this record system strengthened in Russia such principles of estimating explored ore reserves and expected resources which make difficult the adaptation of our Classification to standards and categories accepted in most of other countries. The step in this direction was made by drawing up the project of «Guidelines on Alignment of Russian minerals reporting standards and the CRIRSCO Template». As a consultation draft for comments, the document has been prepared by the group of experts incorporating leading professional researchers of FGU «GKZ», CRIRSCO, mining companies. It seems, this approach process will need the time and corrections of many factors in geological exploration practice, in the State system of record keeping for reserves and resources.
According to the results of magnetotelluric sounding under ore bodies of Ozernoe pyrite- polymetallic deposit revealed a linear zone of low resistivity rocks, which can be traced to a depth of 10 km and can be regarded as structure of feeder fluid. The presence of deep roots in pyrite ore deposits of the Ozernoe deposit is not consistent with existing understanding of its affinity to outliers Early Paleozoic volcanic-sedimentary rocks in the sag of the roof of the Angara-Vitim batholith.
Яковлевское месторождение является типичным для КМА месторождением богатых руд. Компьютерное моделирование месторождения позволило наиболее полно отразить существующие в природе неоднородности в строении рудных тел. Моделирование осуществлялось с использованием программного комплекса Micromine. Сформулированы рекомендации по использованию компьютерных технологий при проведении опережающей эксплуатационной разведки.
На международной конференции, которая прошла в СПГГИ (ТУ) в апреле 2004 г., обсуждались возможности использования компьютерных технологий при разведке и разработке месторождений, нормативно-правовые проблемы их применения и вопросы подготовки квалифицированных кадров. Своевременное и поддержанное нормативно-методической базой внедрение геоинформационных систем (ГИС) в геологическую службу России позволило достичь современного уровня составления государственных геологических карт, в то время как применение компьютерного моделирования для обработки и анализа геолого-разведочных данных до сих развивается стихийно, что ограничивает их использование для подсчета запасов и утверждения их в Государственной комиссии по запасам. Предлагаемые рядом компаний программные продукты для моделирования месторождений твердых полезных ископаемых характеризуются близостью идеологии и алгоритмической основы анализа и обработки геолого-разведочных данных, что позволяет при подготовке специалистов акцентировать внимание на ключевых элементах программных систем, важнейшими из которых являются методы статистического анализа данных и геостатистика. Базовая подготовка по геологическим дисциплинам должна сохранять приоритет. Государство должно быть заинтересовано в увеличении точности, достоверности и оперативности оценки и переоценки природных ресурсов и являться гарантом достоверности запасов полезных ископаемых, разведанных в его недрах. Альтернативой будет развитие системы независимой экспертизы, осуществляемой частными экспертами, компетенцию которых признает система кредитования, которая действует во многих странах и доказала свою эффективность.
The model of formation of pipe-like kimberlite and lamproite bodies, which is based on the fluid dynamic regime of development of magmatic paleosystems, is developed. The main factors determining the fluid dynamic regime of formation of kimberlite bodies are formulated. The proposed model satisfactorily explains many morphological features of kimberlite systems represented by dykes, pipes and sills, peculiarities of the internal structure of kimberlite bodies composing them and may serve as the basis for developing criteria of their diamond potential.
The Northwest region of Russia presents a variety of deposits and structural-formation conditions of their formation: the territory includes fragments of the Baltic crystalline shield, the East European platform, the Pre-Ural marginal trough, the Ural folding belt, the shelf zone of the Barents Sea. These structural areas differ in geological structure and mineralogical specialization, but also have a number of common features. From the position of system analysis, a hierarchical series of geological objects: mineral deposits and occurrences, ore fields, structural-metallogenic zones in their genetic unity is taken as elements. Combination of externally heterogeneous objects (hydrocarbon deposits, solid combustible, ore and non-metallic mineral resources) required the development of conceptual apparatus, theoretical and methodological foundations of the analysis of the general system of mineral resources of the region. The concept of ore formation as a conjugate process proposed by V.S.Golubev (1993) was used: ores with high content of components are formed in the highest gradient ore-forming systems, and the scale of ore mineralization manifestation correlates with the amount of heat entering the ore-forming system. Such conditions occur near the boundaries of different geospheres or local geochemical barriers. Deep (mantle) heat and mass flows determine the leading energy side of the process. Large syn-metamorphic mineral deposits, as well as large oil and gas fields, are controlled by local tectonic structures. Middle Paleozoic (DgZ) endogenous activation is manifested in the region, with which unique deposits of apatite-nepheline ores (Khibinskaya group), ore-metal and rare-earth mineralization (JIo vozersky massive), diamondiferous kimberlites of Arkhangelsk region, a number of carbonatite deposits of Karelian-Kola region are connected.
The primary results of the research and engineering work of the Department of Technology and Technique of Well Drilling, carried out and completed in 2000, are presented. The main result of drilling long wells in the ice of Antarctica is the development of the project of environmentally safe opening of the subglacial Lake Vostok, a unique natural phenomenon, the complex study of which is of the greatest interest to the world scientific community. A 505 m long well with full core recovery was drilled on the Academy of Sciences glacier (Severnaya Zemlya archipelago) in the framework of the international environmental program PEGAIS. Geophysical measurements were carried out in the well. A new method of tubeless casing and sealing of anomalous intervals using a fusible binding material and a thermal plugging penetrator was developed. Basic theoretical and technological principles of liquidation plugging of hydrogeological wells with the use of economical and environmentally safe cementing mortar based on cheap mineral waste were developed. Effectively conducted research and experimental developments on the combined heat and hydrodynamic effects on low-productive sands to increase oil and gas production wells, clarified the laws of the hydro and foam core. New applied programs for PC were formed, allowing to increase adequacy of data and to expand the field of application in evaluation of regulation and stabilization of circulation and heat exchange processes during well sinking and development.
The principal key-targets of the Russian economical strategy concerning the oil and gas supply include, among others, the following ones: expansion of economical activities in the northern and eastern regions of the country; development of the new branch of fuel supply - from the oil and gas fields at the sea shelf, e.g., in the arctic seas; entry of Russian fuel export into the Pacific Asia fuel market.
На основе анализа существующих моделей хрустале образования и результатов изучения Приполярноуральской хрусталеносной провинции показано, что существующие концепции не являются взаимоисключающими, а хрустале образование полигенно. Необходимые для роста кристаллов кварца условия могут реализоваться на определенных этапах развития магматических, метаморфических, метасоматических и тектонофлюидных гидротермальных систем. Наиболее благоприятные для хрусталеобразования условия возникают при проявлении тектонофлюидной активизации на фоне регрессивной стадии регионального метаморфизма зеленосланцевой фации.
Приняв за основу классификации эндогенных месторождений форму тепло-массообмена между земной корой и подкорными зонами, а также между различными уровнями внутри зоны рудоотложения, предложено выделить метаморфогенные месторождения в самостоятельную группу внутри класса гидротермальных месторождений. Рассмотены факторы контроля метаморфогенной минерализации.
Накопленный опыт показал необходимость учета владния температурного фактора при проектировании рациональных конструкций алмазного породоразрушающего инструмента, предназначенных для проходки скважин с очисткой забоя пеной, и оптимальной технологии их отработки ...
Прогнозирование температурного режима бурящейся скважины является одной из основных задач проектирования технологии бурения в зонах распространения мерзлых пород ...