The article analyzes main laws discovered by P.P.Weymarn (1879-1935) during his work at the Saint-Petersburg Mining University, they are connected with obtaining metal-containing disperse substances with nanometer particle size. It enlists priority papers in this field (1906-1915) and describes peculiarities of P.P.Weymarn scientific school which has several connections to modern research being conducted at the Saint-Petersburg Mining University in the field of «nanotechnology» as well as by foreign scientists. The paper reveals continuity in the field of several objects (disperse metals) and the methodology of studying the properties and stoichiometry of substances depending on dispersity. It provides information on achievements in synthesis of surface nanostructured metals and low-dimension forms of substances in various porous matrixes. Among the studies of the XXI century developing Weymarn’s ideas there can be noted solid-state hydride synthesis of metals, layering of different-sized molecules of ammonium compounds on metals (Al, Cu, Ni, Fe), as well as synthesis of metal nanostructures (Ag, Cu, Bi) using porous glass as a particle size stabilizing matrix. In the latter case, the dispersity of the metal increases while its melting point decreases.
On data of acoustic method, it’s discovered that dependence of integral index of friction (D) from loading pressure (P) under using of best lubricant with addition of nanostructured aluminium powder after treatment by mixture of alcamon and triamon vapour, doesn’t consist a characteristic peak under small pressures. This dependence is smooth, plain curve and in pressure range (15-55 MPa) is correctly described by equation D=8,5e 0,082P . Alteration of D on exponent low takes place under using of analogous addition on copper powder base and powder copper, which is processed by alcamon, too. Those facts testify about liquid mode of friction.
Изучена взаимосвязь водоотталкивающих свойств и реакционной способности в процессе окисления для наноструктурированных материалов на основе стали и промышленных марок порошка алюминия. Анализ экспериментальных данных показал, что для образцов, содержащих нанопленки катионных ПАВ и кремнийорганических соединений на стали, наблюдается линейная зависимость между водоотталкивающими свойствами покрытий и их защитными свойствами. Образцы на основе алюминия обладают наивысшей интенсивностью окисления при среднем уровне гидрофобности.
Приведены результаты исследований возможности вовлечения в отработку забалансовых слоев отрабатываемых горизонтов Старобинского месторождения калийных солей. Актуальность данной задачи обусловлена весьма интенсивным погашением запасов рудной базы РУП ПО «Беларуськалий», в то время как вовлечение в разработку новых горизонтов – процесс дорогостоящий и требующий дополнительных геолого-разведочных работ.
The paper studies the formation of synclinal type geological dislocation at the Staroobinsk potash salt deposit. Using modern three-dimensional modeling programs, a fundamental difference in the formation of the upslope and downslope synclines has been established.
A symbatic (and in some cases linear) correlation between water repellent and protective properties of currently known nanostructured and conventional paint-and-lacquer steel coatings has been established; the effect of passivation of steel surface with triamon nanocoating during long-term corrosion tests under industrial conditions has been revealed. For the first time in history, nanostructured protective coatings were developed and implemented at mining enterprises.
The paper provides information on the distinctive features of the geological structure of the Starobinsky deposit's formations and the current mining methods used at Levels II and III. Two methods of selective potash mining using the "loading-unloading-dumping" technology are proposed. The economic effect at realization of recommended schemes is calculated.
This article presents an analysis of existing lava pillar excavation methods using selective mining implemented at the fourth potash horizon. A new method is proposed that ensures the recovery of not only economic resources but also non-commercial reserves of the fourth potash horizon. Non-commercial reserves are concentrated in the ninth sylvinite layer, which contains about 14% of the total resources of this horizon. The economic effect of the proposed mining method is up to $13 million for one mining pillar.
The data on corrosion of Mk.3 steel with different coatings in atmospheric air containing potassium chloride, hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide impurities below the maximum permissible concentrations have been analyzed. A linear dependence between hydrophobic behavior and protective properties of coatings applied on steel was revealed both for standard compositions and for compositions with nanostructured filler (1 wt. %) obtained by hydride solid-phase synthesis.
Corrosion of steel 3 and steel 3 with different coatings in air atmosphere containing impurities of HCl, SO2, KCl (0,04-0,20 mg/m3 , humidity 70-100%) in model conditions by gravimetric method has been investigated. The symbatic dependence between water-repellent properties of coatings and their protective properties has been established. The possibility of fine regulation and increase of protective properties of coatings by using nanofilms of oncationic tensides, base of silicone-organic compounds and nanostructured hydrophobic Si-C-containing fillers in the composition of coatings is shown.
Literature data on the relationship between the energy characteristics of the surface (surface tension, bonding energy of surface atoms) with antifriction and insulating (protective) properties of ionogenic surfactants (surfactants) have been analyzed. Experimentally the tendency of strengthening the lubricating effect has been revealed in process of increasing the bond energy of the N1S characteristic level of cationic surfactants adsorbed on the metal; the effect of essential increase (~ by 2 eV) in the N1S bond energy has been revealed in case of joint adsorption of cationic surfactants with different in value hydrocarbon radicals at the nitrogen atom. The bonding energy was determined from measured X-ray photoelectron spectra; the lubricating effect was evaluated in tests on a high-speed conveyor at low loads in dilute aqueous solutions (about 0.01 % surfactant).