The paper is dedicated to the consideration of interrelation of scientific-technical progress and social progress as one of the most important subjects of sociological science. Some classical and modern macrosociological theories are in the centre of attention, that develop progressive approach in understanding the place and role of scientific-technical progress and innovation development in the life of society. The emphasis is made on the actualization of macrosociological analysis of the problems stated in the paper in the current global economic crisis context.
Local self-government has become one of the most important social institutions of modern democracy. As a universal structure of civil society, local government has multi-purpose powers that can meet a number of pressing needs of the population, such as housing, social services and education. In addition, local government, by allowing ordinary citizens to participate in political life as councillors and providing them with the opportunity to participate in decision-making, plays an important role in legitimizing the existing political regime. Modern systems of self-government are based on the traditions and values of liberal democracy and social democracy. The values that the liberal tradition particularly associates with local self-government are freedom, participation and efficiency. The social democratic tradition holds and defends values such as equality and the right to welfare. Local government in modern democracy is placed in a contradictory position. The central state both needs and fears local self-governance.