The study considers a comprehensive technology (designed and patented by the authors) of developing coal and methane deposits which combines in situ gasification of lower coalbeds in the suite of rock bump hazardous gassy beds, extraction of coal methane and mechanized mining of coal. The first stage of the technology consists in mining gaseous fuel that enables one to extract up to 15-20 % of total energy from the suite of coalbeds. Geodynamic zoning is used to select positions for boring wells. Using the suggested technology makes it possible to solve a number of tasks simultaneously. First of all that is extracting gaseous fuel from the suite of coalbeds without running any mining works while retaining principal coalbeds in the suite and preparing them for future processing (unloading and degassing). During the first phase the methane-coal deposit works as a gas deposit only, the gas having two sources – extracted methane (which includes its locked forms, absorbed and adsorbed) and the products of partial incineration of thin coalbeds, riders and seams from thee suite. The second stage consists in deep degassing and unloading of coal beds which sharply reduces the hazards of methane explosion and rock bumps, thus increasing the productivity of mechanized coal mining. During the second stage coal is mined in long poles with the account of degassing and unloading of coal beds, plus the data on gas dynamic structure of coal rock massif.
The paper investigates present-day challenges related to accumulation, processing and disposal of the coal combustion wastes. The analysis of technogenic materials beneficiation practices using gravitation, magnetic and flotation beneficiation methods has been carried out. Quantitative and qualitative microscopic analysis of materials has been conducted. The study target were ash and slag wastes (ASW) from thermal power plant and coal combustion ash. Most metals are contained in coals and coal ashes in fine-dispersed (1-10 μm) mineral form. Various native metals and intermetallic compounds, sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, tungstates, silicates, rare earths phosphates and niobates have been discovered. Each metal may occur in several mineral phases, for instance tungsten may be in the form of wolframite, stolzite, ferberite, scheelite and represented by impurities. Not only composition of compounds is diversified, but also morphology of grains: well-defined and skeleton crystals, aggregates and polycrystalline structures, crystal twins and fragments; druses, globules and microspherules; porous shapes, flocculous and splintery clusters, lumpy aggregations, etc. Based on chemical silicate analysis of main ASW components the petrochemical properties of material have been assessed. Preliminary analyses have shown that concentration of ferrum-bearing components in ASW is around 5-11 %. The magnetic method of technogenic waste beneficiation with the help of high-gradient magnetic separation has been studied. The obtained evidences show that fine ASW are most efficiently separated in separators with high-gradient magnetic system. The studies provided justification of a process flow for complex treatment of technogenic carbon-containing material, including flotation, gravitation separation, magnetic heteroflocculation enrichment and high-gradient magnetic separation. The determined complex utilization ratio has proven the efficiency of complex processing.
Estimation of earthquakes seismic effect for slope stability of coal strip mine «Chernigovets» in Kemerovo region by means of pseudo-static analysis and physical modeling is conducted. Relevancy to take into account not only maximum accelerations but also continuance of oscillations is showed.
It is shown that major emergencies in mineral deposits mining and in exploitation of buried and surface engineer constructions are attributed to active faults. Classification of hazardous zones has been developed. The mechanisms of influence of geodynamic hazard in coal mines and pipeline exploitation were determined. The technology of reduction of geodynamic risk was suggested.
The paper presents the monitoring system for better geodynamic safety in mining of mineral deposits. The suggested system of geodynamic monitoring allows us to evaluate the stress state of ore massif for the planned variant of mining and to give recommendations on the safe deposit mining. Based on the analysis of the modeling data, consideration was given to one of the variants of geomechanical substantiation of the project of ore deposit mining.
Regularities of variation of cumulative graphs of seismic events repetition in process of transferring from natural seismic activity to the technogenic one are studied. Processes of growth of technogenic seismicity in mining regions on examples of the Kola peninsula and Kuzbass are reviewed.
The conducted observations demonstrated the substantial growth and variation of nature of tectonic and seismic activity in Kuzbas. Growth of geodynamic risks is marked. Methods for study of observable processes are suggested.
The article considers the conditions and pattern of dynamic rock pressure manifestations in mining the «Antey» deposit of uranium ores. Data on geological, technological and geomechanical conditions of the deposit mining are given. The methods and means for rock pressure control are described as well as the results of their application at deep horizons of ore mine are given.
Consideration is given to the geological, mining and operating conditions of the Norilsk industrial district. The analysis is made of the present-day state of mining production of the Zapoliarny branch of the Norilsk Nickel Co. The principal trends in the safe and efficient exploration of the raw material resources base have been stated within the Norilsk industrial district .
The authors relate to the geodynamically active faults those faults with continuous up to present time low-amplitude movements which lead to the destructurization both of bedding rocks and of Quarternary deposits. The electrogeochemical processes proceeding in the zones of such faults, promote the metal corrosion that basically is the cause of increasing a few tens of times of specific accident rate at sites of active faults crossing with pipelines.
The paper contains the substantiation of the determinable role of the cosmos in rhythms of natural and technogenic phenomena at coal- and ore mines. The latent and explicit periods of up-to-date phase of attenuation of the solar constant in the cycle since 1982 to 2070 are shown, as well as the geodynamic consequences of this depression. This paper seeks to give rise to discussion of this problem for working out of coordinated actions in the decrease of geodynamic risks.
Hydrodynamic and hydrogeomechanical processes which may occur during flooding of coal mines are considered. Original scheme – model of strain state of waterbearing undermined massif for estimation of uplift of earth surface was suggested.