A method of localization of concealed cavities on the basis of studying of the reflected electromagnetic impulses is considered in the paper. An issue of early detecting of concealed cavities in engineering facilities is a critical one due to a significant influence on further serviceability of a structure. Problems of localization of concealed cavities in the soil body under the concrete slabs of hydropower stations were studied; the results of ground radar detecting investigations of the cavities, physical simulation of a cavity as well as a mathematical modeling of a reflected signal are presented. Modern subsurface radar detection provides methods which allow to reliably detect concealed cavities in the soil. However, it is possible only in case of a clear boundary between the adjacent layers that conditions a jump of dielectric permeability. In the result of an abrupt change of dielectric permeability a reflected wave occurred; the existence of subsurface heterogeneity is conditioned by the properties of this wave. Moreover, the greater is the difference between the values of dielectric permeability in the adjacent layers, the larger amplitude the reflected wave will have. If the cavity is at the stage of forming, i.e. it is filled with the soil of reduced density, then there is no clear boundary at the border of the layers which will condition a gradual change of dielectric permeability with depth. In this case an amplitude of a reflected wave will be minimal and a formation signal will be masked out by jamming signals reflected from various heterogeneities. In such case to determine a cavity at the stage of forming seems to be impossible. To determine poor signals an analysis of a phase of a reflected signal may be used; phase alters in compliance with the reflection coefficient change pattern. The article contains information about signals reflected from the heterogeneities and a conclusion regarding a possibility of detecting cavities in the soil on the basis of a method of coherent processing of signals is made.
They considered the possibilities of transfer of liquefied hydrocarbon gases through pipelines. It is proposed EC-use new technology based on the use of add in LNG (liquefied natural gas) gas condensate.
Since 1991 till the year of 2000 more than 300 serious accidents happened in Russia. The significant part of the accidents at main pipelines was connected with electrochemical corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and microbiological corrosion. System analysis of the accident reasons cannot be given without probabilistic and statistical approach, which assumes that the reason of the accident is the combination of many influencing factors. At the same time usage of the multivariate analysis is quite complicated task due to a large amount of factors, influencing the pipelines accident rate, insufficient statistics and unauthentic documentation of the accident causes .
On the territory of Russia, up to hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of oil sludge are stored in sludge storages of oil producing and refining enterprises. In the absence of modern technologies for liquefaction and utilization of oil sludge, a significant number of storage facilities have turned from a means of preventing oil pollution into a threat of large-scale pollution of soil, underground and surface water bodies. The complexity of effective utilization and liquidation of oil sludge lies in their structure. They contain oil, water, emulsions, mechanical impurities - in different ratios, and simple settling, even with heating, does not give the effect of stratification of oil sludge components.