Mineral resources as natural capital can be transformed into human, social and physical capital, that guarantees the sustainable development of a country, exclusively through professional public management. Public management of a country's mineral resource potential is seen as an element of transnational governance. Regulation involves the use of laws, rules and regulations within the jurisdictional and sectoral capabilities of the state, minimizing its involvement as a producer. The features of the ideology of economic liberalism, which polarizes the societies of raw material producing countries by imposing austerity, as well as lowering trade barriers have been studied. The analysis of the influence of the radical new order of neoliberal world ideology on the development of the extractive sector and the strengthening of state regulation has been presented.
Modern trends in the global energy market linked to the Sustainable Development Goals often lead to the adoption of political decisions with little basis in fact. Stepping up the development of renewable energy sources is an economically questionable but necessary step in terms of its social and ecological effects. However, subsequent development of hydrogen infrastructure is, at the very least, a dangerous initiative. In connection with mentioned above, an attempt to examine hydrogen by conducting an integral assessment of its characteristics has been made in this article. As a result of the research conducted, the following conclusions concerning the potential of the widespread implementation of hydrogen in the power generation sector have been made: as a chemical element, it harms steel structures, which significantly impedes the selection of suitable materials; its physical and volume characteristics decrease the general efficiency of the energy system compared to similar hydrocarbon solutions; the hydrogen economy does not have the necessary foundation in terms of both physical infrastructure and market regulation mechanisms; the emergence of widely available hydrogen poses a danger for society due to its high combustibility. Following the results of the study, it was concluded that the existing pilot hydrogen projects are positive yet not scalable solutions for the power generation sector due to the lack of available technologies to construct large-scale and geographically distributed infrastructure and adequate international system of industry regulation. Thus, under current conditions, the risks of implementing such projects considerably exceed their potential ecological benefits.
Article presents results of study on possibility of increasing the efficiency of drilling directional straight sections of wells using screw downhole motors (SDM) with a combined method of drilling with rotation of drilling string (DS). Goal is to ensure steady-state operation of SDM with simultaneous rotation of DS by reducing the amplitude of oscillations with adjusting the parameters of drilling mode on the basis of mathematical modeling for SDM – DS system. Results of experimental study on determination of extrema distribution of lateral and axial oscillations of SDM frame depending on geometrical parameters of gerotor mechanism and modes ensuring stable operation are presented. Approaches to development of a mathematical model and methodology are conceptually outlined that allow determining the range of self-oscillations for SDM – DS system and boundaries of rotational and translational wave perturbations for a heterogeneous rod with an installed SDM at drilling directional straight sections of well. This mathematical model of SDM – DS system's dynamics makes it possible to predict optimal parameters of directional drilling mode that ensure stable operation of borehole assembly.
Paper presents the analysis of the investigation results of vibrational accelerations and beating amplitudes of the downhole drilling motor, which help to define the ranges of optimum energy characteristics of the gerotor mechanism, ensuring its stable operation. Dependencies describing the operation of the «drilling bit – rotary steerable system with power screw section – drilling string» system and the values of the self-oscillation boundaries and the onset of system resonance when it is used jointly, were defined as a result of computational and full-scale experimental research. A mathematical model is proposed, which allows determining the optimal range of technological parameters for well drilling, reducing the extreme vibration accelerations of the bottomhole assembly by controlling the torque-power and frequency characteristics of the drilling string, taking into account the energy characteristics of the power screw section of the rotary steerable system. Recommendations on the choice of drilling mode parameters were given.
Greetings from the Chief Editor with the release of the jubilee volume in honor of the 110th anniversary of the Journal of the Mining Institute.
As the result of many years of research into the processes of the transfer of ice as a rock mass on a global scale, concerning the Antarctic ice sheet at the ultra-deep 5G borehole, a discovery has been made that is of international significance in the areas of glaciology and geodynamics. Those who created the theory of thermal and mechanical penetration into ice and loose sediments have developed unique technology and engineering processes in order to drill boreholes using thermal and mechanical methods.
The results of research are related, with effective composition of process fluids for oil and gas workover.
In this article were shown research results connected with development of mathematical model of cementation in high-permeability rock at drilling and repair of oil and gas wells.
In this paper results of experimental studies of ice cutting process with using cutter type bits are presented. The bit operation, ranges of rational value of bit taper and rate of penetration are analysed. Reasons causing complications during drilling well in ice deeper then 3000m are determined on the basis well drilling in Vostok station and Dom C and possible ways to overcome them.
The role of the Holodninsky ore deposit in ensuring need of the Russian Federation in extremely scarce raw materials – zinc and lead is shown. Technical solutions for decrease in ecological risks at extraction of this ore deposit are considered. Conclusions are drawn on prospects of extraction of the Holodninsky ore deposit.
Technological solutions of ore loss reduction in interchamber pillars at bottom levels design of Gubkin mine are developed. Research based on physical (with the use of equivalent materials) and mathematical (finite element method) modelling has been carried out. The requirement for pilot work before industrial scale use is established.
Article is in touch with mining industry and devoted to the analysis and generalization of world experience of underground mining of kimberlitic tubes underquarry reserves. In it the urgency of research of new technologies of underground mining of kimberlitic tubes underquarry reserves in the conditions of the deposits, developed by «ALROSA». The mining technology of kimberlitic tubes water-bearing underquarry reserves excavation is described.
It shows the experimental results connected with creating of effective compositions of technological fluids for drilling and repair of oil and gas wells.
Mineral extraction is closely connected with the processes of human impact on the environment in order to provide raw materials and their partial loss. With the total extraction of mineral resources exceeding 6.5bn tons, the total losses in the subsoil amount to 2.5bn tons: about 50bn tons of harmful substances are emitted into the atmosphere, more than 2bn m3 of polluted waste water is discharged into water bodies and more than 8bn tons of solid waste is stored on the surface of the earth. The scientific school of SPGGI is developing a set of measures to protect the environment from the harmful effects of technological processes in open-pit and underground coal mining, which today is a demanded natural energy resource, and in the future will become one of the main ones, as its supply can satisfy the needs of all industries for several hundred years.
It is a great pleasure to see you - participants of the conference in this magnificent hall, where it is possible to establish new contacts, exchange opinions, discuss urgent problems of mining production, higher education, get acquainted with the conditions of personnel training at the Mining Institute, visit the first Temple of Mining Engineers. I would like to express my gratitude to the members of the Organizing Committee, who under difficult conditions managed to do a great job and create favorable conditions for your fruitful work.
The mineral and raw materials complex of the Russian Federation is the basis of the country's economy at present and will retain its importance for the next 25-30 years. The purpose of the research activity is to create and develop the system of state regulation of subsoil use in the conditions of transition of the Russian economy to a balanced development. The research analyzes the current position of the mineral and raw materials complex of Russia in the structure of state regulation of the process of subsoil use, and also studies foreign experience in the field of mining management and the current system of laws relating to natural resources. As a result of the conducted research the concept of an effective system of regulation of the mineral and raw materials complex was developed. Recommendations concerning the improvement of the state policy in the field of subsoil utilization have been developed.
I congratulate you on the start of the scientific and practical conference “Safe and rational use of mineral resources” dedicated to the 285th anniversary of the establishment of state mining supervision. This conference is a unique opportunity for close communication between representatives of science and nature users, heads of ministries and departments, central apparatus and territorial bodies of the Federal Service for Environmental, Technological and Nuclear Supervision of Russia, managers and specialists of hazardous production facilities of mining operations, research organizations. It is difficult to overestimate the role of mineral resources for the country's economy, providing a significant inflow of foreign currency into the Russian treasury. A special place is occupied by the fuel and energy complex, which determines the economic and social development of the country. The main tasks in the sphere of rational use of mineral resources are: creation of high-tech production facilities for extraction and processing of minerals, reproduction of the mineral resource base and ensuring a high level of industrial safety. At the enterprises of mining industry, characterized by increased danger of production, there is a difficult situation with labor protection - not rare accidents that pose a threat to the health and life of miners, so in modern conditions it is necessary to transition to new principles in the management of industrial safety at the enterprises of the industry. Fundamentally new market relations determine the need to improve the previous and develop new approaches in this area. The team of the Federal Service for Environmental, Technological and Nuclear Supervision successfully copes with a difficult task - the development of modern methods of labor safety management. I hope that cooperation with domestic science will continue to develop, bringing concrete practical solutions. I wish all those present a successful and fruitful work!
Russia, as one of the world's largest producers of minerals, is the world's leading exporter, and its mining industry plays a critical role in the economic and social structure of Russian society. The continuing decline in the production of mineral resources, the deterioration of the raw material base of existing enterprises, the enormous reduction of mining capacities, and the lack of measures to replenish them do not contribute to a favorable investment climate, which may lead in the very near future to a situation where a country with huge reserves of raw materials will practically lose control over their effective use. The main goal of the work is to emphasize the need for an urgent change in the system of state approach to the management of mineral resources by adopting the Russian Government’s Mineral Resources Policy. The concept of sustainable development of our economy requires an urgent revision of the former attitude to the consideration of issues related to minerals in the context of the unity of economic and social goals and objectives.
The primary results of the research and engineering work of the Department of Technology and Technique of Well Drilling, carried out and completed in 2000, are presented. The main result of drilling long wells in the ice of Antarctica is the development of the project of environmentally safe opening of the subglacial Lake Vostok, a unique natural phenomenon, the complex study of which is of the greatest interest to the world scientific community. A 505 m long well with full core recovery was drilled on the Academy of Sciences glacier (Severnaya Zemlya archipelago) in the framework of the international environmental program PEGAIS. Geophysical measurements were carried out in the well. A new method of tubeless casing and sealing of anomalous intervals using a fusible binding material and a thermal plugging penetrator was developed. Basic theoretical and technological principles of liquidation plugging of hydrogeological wells with the use of economical and environmentally safe cementing mortar based on cheap mineral waste were developed. Effectively conducted research and experimental developments on the combined heat and hydrodynamic effects on low-productive sands to increase oil and gas production wells, clarified the laws of the hydro and foam core. New applied programs for PC were formed, allowing to increase adequacy of data and to expand the field of application in evaluation of regulation and stabilization of circulation and heat exchange processes during well sinking and development.
Born in ancient times, drilling wells until the second half of the 19th century remained mostly percussive on rope or rods. Rotary drilling was only manual and was used for sinking shallow wells in weakly cohesive rocks. As far back as 600 years B.C. Confucius wrote of thousands of wells as deep as 500 m and even as deep as 1,200 m drilled in China for water and salt. Over the centuries this ancient invention of the Chinese has hardly changed. French travelers of the 19th century described Chinese drilling technology as it was more than 2.5 thousand years ago.
Russia is one of the world leaders in the exploration of natural resources. It is a leading exporter of natural resources in the world and the mining industry plays an important role in the economic and social spheres of Russian society. The continuing recession in production of natural resources and the deterioration of mineral resource supplies adversely affects Russian enterprises. Most of the mining equipment in the country is falling into disrepair and no measures are being taken to replenish these supplies all of which contributes to a less favorable investment climate. This can lead to a situation where a world leader in natural resource production will practically lose control over effective usage of these resources. The objective of this paper is to stress the necessity of immediately changing the State's approach to management of natural resources and of adopting a state governmental policy on management of natural resources. A strategy of sustainable development in the Russian economy requires an immediate change in the existing attitudes to problems related to raw materials along both economic and social lines, both as relates to our goals and the required effort to reach them.
Economic criteria for estimating the investments and organizational technical measures to guarantee the optimal economic conditions for realization the "Blue Stream" project – pipeline from Russia to Turkey at the bottom of Black sea - have been substantiated.
Для оценки эффективности формы рабочей поверхности нагревательного устройства (пенетратора) термического бурения ранее было предложено использовать их коэффициент полезного действия ...
Под эффективностью процесса бурения горных пород плавлением следует понимать не только скорость углубки в породу, но и такие факторы, как диаметр скважины, его соотношение с диаметром пенетратора , количество образующегося в единицу времени расплава, толщину остеклованного расплава на стенках скважины, его прочность, удельный расход энергин на единицу проходки и многие другие ...
В настоящее время в практику буровых работ все шире внедряется разнообразные физические методы разрушения или разупрочнения горных пород ...
Способ бурения горных пород плавлением перспективен для проходки скважин в силу свойственных ему преимуществ: отсутствие вращения бурильной колонны; одновременное с бурением крашение стенок скважин остеклованным расплавом; сокращение времени на спускоподъемные операции при использовании шлангокабеля; упрощение задачи автоматизации процесса бурения и др. ...
Одним из перспективных направлений создания и освоения новых комплексов высокопроизводительных технических средств для бурения скважин в сложных горно-геологических условиях является разработка принципиально новых способов разрушения горных пород, отличающихся как видом используемой энергии, так и характером передачи ее в массив породы на забое скважины ...