Nowadays, there are significant heavy high-viscosity oil reserves in the Russian Federation with oil recovery coefficient not higher than 0.25-0.29 even with applying modern and efficient methods of oil fields development. Thermal methods are the most promising out of the existing ways of development, main disadvantage of which is large material costs, leading to the significant rise in the cost of extracted oil. Thus, creating more efficient thermal methods and improving the existing ones, is the task of great importance in oil production. One of the promising trends in enhancing thermal methods of oil recovery is the development of bottomhole electric steam generators. Compared to the traditional methods of thermal-steam formation treatment, which involve steam injection from surface, well electrothermal devices can reduce energy losses and improve the quality of steam injected into the formation. For successful and efficient organization of oil production and rational development of high-viscosity oil fields using well electrothermal equipment, it is necessary to take into account the pattern of heat propagation, both in the reservoir and in the surrounding space, including the top and bottom. One of the main values characterizing this process is the heat conductivity λ of oil-bearing rocks. The article describes composition of typical oil-saturated sand soils, presents studies of heat and mass transfer in oil-saturated soils, reveals the effect of various parameters on the heat conductivity of a heterogeneous system, proposes a method for calculating the heat conductivity of oil-bearing soils by sequential reduction of a multicomponent system to a two-component system and proves the validity of the proposed approach by comparing acquired calculated dependencies and experimental data.
The article considers the issue of improving the efficiency of exploiting the acting oil fields and transportation system on the basis of modern hi-tech technologies to control the extracted and transported material. Factors are studied that lower the reliability of oil flow measurements, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the main ambiguities are described of using current systems for metrological account of oil transported through the pipelines. The effect is studied of inclusions in the transported oil flow on measurement efficiency. A technique is suggested for selective measurements of separate phases in the complex multi-phase flows with isotropic radio emission, the principal relationships are presented to describe the intensity of direct and scattered gamma-radiation on flow parameters. Criteria are given for developing a measurement system that would control the actual component composition of the flow with time, hence the amount of oil transported; that would enable organizing a centralized open department to control the quality of oil and transportation conditions, upgrade the level of production and provide high measurement accuracy. Results are presented of testing the technique on an operating oil field; the relative error margin of measuring free gas content was 0.2 %. The range is reviewed of possible applications for the measurement system of multi-phase multi-component flows, developed in the Saint Petersburg Mining University.
New way of statistical pulsation measurements by radioisotope technique is described, being alternative to the existing stream control methods and allowing to improve accuracy of measurements. The basic formula fundamental for the method of calibration characteristics correction is shown.
The radioisotope method of specific weight measurement of the controlled environment is briefly described in article. The technique of creation and the block diagram of servo astatic system of the second order is submitted with the purpose of indemnification of errors due to influence on result of measurements of casual characteristics of a stream.
The new design of cable-belt conveyor is described. This type of conveyor is alternative of existing two-planimetric cable-rope conveyors and it allows to eliminate organic lacks of existing conveyors is described. Settlement formulas for definition of key parameters defining loadings on elements of the conveyor and its drive are resulted.