The article discusses the fields and methods of application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Current legislation in Russia and in the world, significantly limit the use of UAV in monitoring. For the first time, we present a solution to the problem of a monitoring measurement system included in the state register of measuring instruments using the example of the basic UAV model. We conducted an analysis of promising approaches to the creation of UAV metrological and methodological support, as well as ways to adapt their target load to meet the challenges of operational monitoring of air pollution.
A method of development of a technology of peat extraction for intensifying of dewatering which involves drying of peat raw materials in thick layers with a layer-by-layer harvesting into large-sized roll with further delivery to the field storage unit of the enlarged sizes is presented in the paper. Throughout the year storage raw materials may be transported to the customer or to the shopfloor for further processing. Considering dimension and mass characteristics, a crumbed peat of various moisture capacity is a major type of products to be of high demand. On the basis of the results of scientific studies regarding gravity dewatering of peat and its drying in field environment, the ways of intensifying of field dewatering of peat for extraction at shallow-peat lands and fine-limit fields are proposed. The presented results of the experimental performance of a technology of peat drying in thick layers with a layer-by-layer harvesting indicate an increase of seasonal harvesting and a decrease of the influence of unfavorable meteorological factors on the stability of the extraction process. Performed investigations allowed to develop a structure of technical operations for peat excavation with the stage dewatering in spreading and intermediate storage units providing rational state of the extraction process regarding a complex of technical factors. A suggested scheme of a process area for a primary and secondary period of deposit exploitation by a technology of peat excavation is considered.
The possibility of using the model equilibrium disturbed peat system to assess the effectiveness of gravitational drainage of the peat material hill without evaporation from the surface, depending on the height of the critical thickness, flow rate and the amount of moisture in the layer after deposition.
This paper provides an overview of the current analysis of peat resources distribution of Northwest Federal district. The analysis of peat industry is resulted. The power effective technology of career extraction of peat raw materials and manufacture of agglomerated peat fuel for needs of the distributed power is offered.
In comparison with traditional methods of extraction using the offered equipment and developed technological schemes for industrial production of a peat will allows to avoid actions on drainage of developed fields; to reduce expenses for preparation and operation of a peat deposit; to prolong a season of mining activities, and in some cases to provide an opportunity of all-the-year-round operation of a deposit.
The article deals with design features a removable desktop equipment peat excavation, loading machine. The analysis of the structures of the working equipment of peat excavation, loading machines. Suggest ways to improve the design of the working equipment of peat excavation, loading machines.
Для расчетов конструкций накопительных, перепускных (демпферных) бункеров используются методики расчета простейших форм – вертикальный цилиндр или даже щелевая емкость с вертикальными параллельными стенками и никак не учитываются процессы движения материала при выпуске. Предлагается метод расчета для комбинированной формы бункера с учетом физико-механических свойств материала загрузки и стен бункера (угол естественного откоса, насыпной вес, коэффициенты трения между частицами материала и частиц о стены бункера при покое и движении материала) на базе использования модели дискретной среды в виде регулярной укладки шаров.
Нагрузочная способность масел определяется их смазывающей способностью. Ввиду недостаточной смазочной способности масел для пар трения, эксплуатируемых в условиях граничной смазки, распространено адсорбционно-коррозионно-усталостное изнашивание, в связи с чем важным является обоснованный выбор масел для трансмиссий горных машин. Предложен экспресс-способ сравнительной оценки смазывающей способности масел.
Применение комбинированного смещения при проектировании зубчатых передач позволяет значительно расширить область существования зацепления с нестандартным радиальным зазором. Представлено влияние параметров реeчного производящего контура на область существования зацепления. Дано сравнение 3D области существования зацепления с различными числами зубьев.
Design schemes of pneumatic, hydraulic and drilling machines with combined drive, used in mines and mines, mainly have mechanical drives of drilling rod rotation. This refers to machines of domestic and foreign production. A considerable part of failures of drilling equipment occurs exactly due to the fault of rotary units. One of the weak points of the design is often the transmission output shaft support unit made on the basis of plain bearing. The energy and life of such a sliding bearing is limited by the limit value of wear, leading to the occurrence of unacceptable misalignment of the gear wheels’ axes. The expression for determining the energy resource of the plain bearing from the condition of permissible volume wear of the liner material is proposed.
The possibility of monitoring of underground self-propelled equipment is shown. The use of on-board measuring instruments in combination with software systems for planning, accounting of work, organization of maintenance and repair, as well as a systematized approach to accounting for the influence of operating conditions on the efficiency of the underground self-propelled machine operation has been suggested.
Rotary-impact drill heads with a mechanical rotator transmission are widespread in mines and mines. A typical representative of this class of machines are BGA type units. The revealed data about breakdowns of BHA drill head show that actual lifetime of transmission elements is 60-100 hours, while the regulated lifetime is 360-1440 hours. To estimate the service life of parts and to find the weakest elements of the transmission, the energy method was chosen. When using this approach, it was necessary to consider the influence of inaccuracies in the location of transmission components on their service life. The positioning inaccuracies cause a shift in the meshing of the ring gear, and the load distribution along the width has a variable character, which leads to the reduction of the transmission life due to the occurrence of stresses in some parts of the ring gear, which exceed the allowable stresses. Thus, there was a need to take into account the non-uniformity of energy resource consumption depending on the actual contact width, nature and size of the external load. In order to solve this problem, a laboratory bench for testing the gears was created at the department. Experimental studies carried out on the stand showed that when the contact width changes by more than three times, the losses in the meshing differ little. Obviously, there is a change in the energy balance. The energy flow losses absorbed by the part and going directly to the destruction of the crystal lattice of the material increase, which leads to a more intensive expenditure of the energy resource of the gearing.