Scientific research in the area close to the Russian Antarctic station Vostok has been carried out since its founding on December 16, 1957. The relevance of work to study the region is steadily increasing, which is confirmed by the Strategy for the Development of Activities of the Russian Federation in the Antarctica until 2030. As part of the Strategy implementation, Saint Petersburg Mining University solves the comprehensive study issues of the Vostok station area, including the subglacial Lake Vostok, related to the development of modern technologies and technical means for drilling glaciers and underlying rocks, opening subglacial reservoirs, sampling water and bottom sediments, as well as carrying out comprehensive geological and geophysical research. For the successful implementation of the Strategy, at each stage of the work it is necessary to identify and develop interdisciplinary connections while complying with the requirements for minimizing the impact on the environment. During the season of the 68th Russian Antarctic Expedition, the staff of the Mining University, along with the current research works , began research of the dynamic interactions between the forces of the Earth, from the deepest depths to the surface glacier. Drilling and research programs have been completed. The drilling program was implemented jointly with colleagues from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute at the drilling complex of the 5G well. The research program included: shallow seismic studies, core drilling of snow-firn strata, study of the snow-firn strata petrostructural features, studies of cuttings collection filters effectiveness when drilling snow-firn strata and the process of ice destruction in a reciprocating rotational method, bench testing of an acoustic scanner. As a result of drilling in 5G well at the depth range of 3453.37-3534.43 m, an ice core more than 1 million years old was obtained.
Technologies and technical means for investigation of subglacial lakes in Antarctic is a new developing scientific and technical direction, which today has no clearly established methodology. Based on the developed technology of drilling a new access well to lake Vostok and its penetration as well as analysis of existing methods and devices for bottom sediment sampling, a basic model of a sampler with a walking-type mover, capable of moving along different trajectories and operating in a wide technological range, is proposed. The proposed device model is equipped with different actuators for sampling the bottom surface with different physical and mechanical properties. Based on the presented basic model of the walking sampler, a mathematical model of the device was developed, which was based on the theoretical mechanics methods. As a result of conducted research the dependencies were obtained, which allow making a scientifically justified choice of optimal values for geometric and force parameters of the walking sampler. A conceptual design of the walking sampler has been developed, taking into account the mutual location and coupling of its main components, the overall dimensions of the delivery tool, as well as the esthetic component of the device.
The subglacial Lake Vostok in Antarctic is a unique natural phenomenon, its comprehensive study involves sampling of water and bottom surface rocks. For further study of the lake, it is necessary to drill a new access well and develop environmentally safe technologies for its exploration. This article discusses existing and potential technologies for sampling bottom surface rocks of subglacial lakes. All these technologies meet environmental safety requirements and are conducive for sampling. The authors have proposed an alternative technology, using a walking device, which, due to its mobility, enables selective sampling of rocks across a large area from a single access well. The principal issues, related to the implementation of the proposed technology, are investigated within this article. This report is prepared by a team of specialists with many years of experience in drilling at the Vostok Station in Antarctic and in experimental work on the design of equipment and non-standard means of mechanization for complicated mining, geological and climatic conditions.
The article considers the issues associated with the use of rail transport at the enterprises of the mining and oreprocessing industries. Define the most perspective directions of use of traction devices friction type for drives of mining and technological machines.
This paper provides an overview of the current requirement of organogenic deposits development. Results of researches by definition of bearing value of a surface of hydrolytic lignin technogenics spoils are resulted. Preliminary results indicate that the wheel transport-tractor unit can be applied by organogenic deposits development.
This paper provides an overview of the current analysis of peat resources distribution of Northwest Federal district. The analysis of peat industry is resulted. The power effective technology of career extraction of peat raw materials and manufacture of agglomerated peat fuel for needs of the distributed power is offered.
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Screw bunker executive body is designed to work on the peat deposits and can be used for the extraction of peat deposits from the drilling-out. The paper describes the design of screw bunker executive authority and proposed calculation of energy consumption for cutting.
После распада СССР Российская Федерация вынуждена закупать марганцевые руды за рубежом. В шельфовой зоне морей, омывающих границы РФ, находятся месторождения железомарганцевых конкреций, промышленное освоение которых позволит частично решить проблему отсутствия собственного марганцевого сырья. Существующие технические средства для освоения твердых полезных ископаемых морского дна не позволяют эффективно отрабатывать данные месторождения, поэтому создание новых добычных комплексов, сочетающих в себе высокую производительность и экологическую безопасность, является актуальной научной и технической проблемой.
Представлены результаты расчетов на ЭВМ энергетических характеристик проходческих комбайнов со сдвоенными корончатыми и шнековыми исполнительными органами. Приведены параметры исполнительных органов с минимальными удельными энергозатратами на разруше ние породы.