Currently, the determination of the emission rate of suspended solids from a unit of the surface area of a man-made mass at various parameters of the wind flow is not sufficiently described. The analysis of the world experience of researchers shows that existing laboratory installations have various design features that do not allow to correctly determine the mass of the dust being flapped and wind-blown. Based on the analysis results, the concept of an innovative laboratory installation for the study of dust-forming surfaces has been developed. It takes into account the influence of wind shadows, the deturbulization of an artificially created air flow, the possibility of regulating not only the flow velocity mode, but also the creation of a vacuum or disturbance in the area of sample placement, as well as the formation of a certain angle of wind flow attack relative to the surface. The concept provides for the possibility of determining the volume of dust emissions by the values of the lost dust masses in the sample and by the values of dust concentrations in the outgoing stream. The calculation of the main basic elements of the installation using the ANSYS FLUENT software package was carried out. The model and configuration of the wind tunnel have been developed and calculated, the main geometric parameters and functional elements for the possibility of use in scientific work have been determined. For practical use of the empirical roughness value of the underlying surface, its values are recommended in a wide range – from zero for the water surface to 0.44 for large cities with tall buildings and skyscrapers.
In the Mining University there was set construction of pneumohydraulic sprayer for dust suppression systems. Important development stage of dust suppression sprayer is creation meth computing model for optimization of a hydraulic flow in a sprayer for reduction of working expenses.
The construction of pneumohydraulic sprayer-snow generator for effective and economical dust suppression was proposed. Developed and made more than ten sprayer models and was made several series of experiment for identification optimal parameters this construction. There was made special dust suppression bunker and was made several series of experiment for identification optimal parameters bunker and efficiency of dust suppression. With this plant there was efficiency of dust suppression 85 %.
Around placing of the enterprises of a mineral complex, and especially in areas of placing of sailings, as a result of mass emissions of a dust in environment there are adverse ecological conditions, and also, level of dust loading on an organism of the worker increases. In article the way of dust control, based on mechanical catching of the weighed particles by snow, on filtering and shielding action of snow is considered.
In places of possible allocation of a dust, near sources of its formation or at allocation places ways of dust-depressing now are applied. Principal views of dust-depressing are: a water irrigation (including dispersing, the ionized water), a foamy irrigation (aerofoams, air-mechanical foams), an irrigation steam (fog). In article condensation of steams of water on a surface of hygroscopic particles is considered stream-condensation way of dust-depressing, based on action.
In the practice of rock excavation by borehole and borehole charges, oversized lumps of rock mass are formed, the yield of which is caused by: the physical and mechanical properties of rocks, the blockiness of rock masses, the parameters of drilling and blasting operations and other factors. The presence of oversized lumps of rocks on working platforms of open pits complicates technological processes of excavation and transport, reduces the efficiency of loading and transporting equipment. In underground mining the crushing of oversized lumps of rock mass is carried out on scraper tracks, in ducts and ore stacks, during the works in which the most difficult are the cases of jamming and vaulting.
Минерально-сырьевой комплекс (МСК) относится к классу больших экономических систем. Построение моделей, постановка задач планирования и управления для таких систем связаны с преодолением значительных сложностей теоретического и практического характера ...