The paper presents economic justification for applicability of near-surface geothermal installations in Luga region, based on results of techno-economic calculations as well as integrated technical and economic comparison of different prediction scenarios of heat supply, both conventional and using geothermal heat pumps (GHP). Construction costs of a near-surface geothermal system can exceed the costs of central heating by 50-100 %. However, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of heat production for geothermal systems are 50-70 % lower than for conventional sources of heating. Currently this technology is very important, it is applied in various countries (USA, Germany, Japan, China etc.), and depending on the region both near-surface and deep boreholes are being used. World practice of near-surface geothermal systems application is reviewed in the paper.
Procedure of Korobkovsky iron-ore deposit new levels mining with the usage of physical modeling has been determined. Evaluation of interchamber pillars fixity in Gubkin mine and soil surface deformation in the process of lift mining and fractional interchamber pillars robbing on three levels has been carried out. After conducting geomechanical research the decision of foremost development and mining of bottom level reserve between –125 m / –250 m has been made.
Article is devoted to a choice of rational technology of mining of part of stocks interchamber pillars at floor-and-chamber system of development of the Korobkovsky deposit of KMA. Authors carried out calculations and comparison of technical and economic parameters of two offered technologies of mining: horizontal layers with a stowing in an ascending order with application of a portable equipment and horizontal layers with a stowing in an ascending order with a driving of autobiases in interpanel pillars. For a choice of method of development for mining of part of interchamber pillar and determination of its parameters and indicators.
Technological solutions of ore loss reduction in interchamber pillars at bottom levels design of Gubkin mine are developed. For the purpose of justification of these offers has been carried out: physical (with the use of equivalent materials) and mathematical (finite element method) modeling. The research results and schedules of economic borders of use of new technologies are presented. The requirement for pilot work before industrial scale use is established.
Technological solutions of ore loss reduction in interchamber pillars at bottom levels design of Gubkin mine are developed. Research based on physical (with the use of equivalent materials) and mathematical (finite element method) modelling has been carried out. The requirement for pilot work before industrial scale use is established.
Article is in touch with mining industry and devoted to the analysis and generalization of world experience of underground mining of kimberlitic tubes underquarry reserves. In it the urgency of research of new technologies of underground mining of kimberlitic tubes underquarry reserves in the conditions of the deposits, developed by «ALROSA». The mining technology of kimberlitic tubes water-bearing underquarry reserves excavation is described.
Article is in touch with mining industry and devoted to the analysis and generalisation of world experience of underground mining of kimberlitic tubes underquarry reserves. In it the urgency of research of new technologies of underground mining of kimberlitic tubes underquarry reserves in the conditions of the deposits, developed by «ALROSA» stock company is formulated and basic problems arising in this area are defined. The mining technology of kimberlitic tubes water-bearing underquarry reserves excavation is described.
Article is in touch with analysis of backfill materials applied on diamond mines, description of research of its mechanical properties to create the optimal compound in conditions of Yakutian kimberlitic tubes.
Deficiency of organic fuel and necessity of protection of environment cause growth of rates of development practically inexhaustible, everywhere widespread and ecologically pure geothermal resources. For needs of a heat supply especially actively developing innovative technology of development of near-surface geothermal resources has great value. Operative mining of the production schedules containing optimum parametres and indicators PSGT is necessary for designing and building of near-surface systems of a geothermal heat supply (PSGT). The imitating economic-mathematical model is developed, the algorithm and the program of their optimisation are created. Computer calculations for a wide range of natural, power and economic conditions are carried out. Key parametres and indicators PSGT are defined. Their optimum values for a heat supply of local consumers (apartment houses) in the conditions of the Yaroslavl area are recommended.
The paper is concerned with mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer in subsurface geothermal systems. Heat exchanger is driven as a vertical channel in an impermeable rock massive. The temperature of rock is driven in accord with a usual thermal conductance equation on a cylinder coordinates basis. The boundary conditions between the rock and heat exchanger are given by the equality of a thermal flow.
Technological decisions on decrease in losses of ore in between chamber walls are considered at designing of the bottom horizons of mine of Gubkin. It is offered two variants of decrease in losses of the ore technologically compatible with each other for their simultaneous use. Results of calculation of losses of ore and economic consequences are resulted. The basic actions which are necessary for carrying out, before introduction of technological decisions in manufacture are described.
Preservation of Russia as the great state, its further development and prosperity, appreciably depends on possibilities to provide its own power needs, and also fuel and electric power export. On this historical period, power resources are the basic trading source of replenishment of the state budget. However, oil resources, at preservation of volumes of its export, are quickly exhausted; natural gas is not boundless too. Coal stocks have essentially decreased with disintegration of the USSR, and the remained demand considerable investments, increase of current expenses and are characterised by decrease in quality of coals. Additional expenses on ecological protection of environment will increase. Search of alternative to the organic fuel, burnt in heating plants, is conducted more than ten years. Use of low-temperature sources of thermal energy of resources is one of general directions in the decision of this problem in the XXI-st century. It proves to be true: certain advantages of geothermal resources, a readiness of scientific bases of their development, world industrial experience and specificity of systems of a heat supply in the country.
The article deals with the development technologies of deep ore deposits with medium life cycle. These deposits are a promising source of raw materials for many Russian mining enterprises. The "upward" and "downward" technology of stripping and development of such deposits is proposed. The results of regime-deformation tests in the "up-down" technology and their comparison with the results in the "down-down" technology are given.
Modern stripping schemes for steeply dipping ore deposits are analyzed. Possible stripping schemes for ore body mining in the combined ascending-descending order of operations are designed. Dependences of the reduced costs on the depth of the first stage of stripping and the angle of dip of the ore body at the combined order of deposit development are established. Conclusions and recommendations are made.
В условиях современных рыночных отношений базой менеджмента на горных работах становится управление качеством руды. Можно выделить следующие его этапы: определение рыночных цен на добытую руду; формирование границ рудных тел при переборе рациональных кондиций; определение оптимальных затрат и цен на добытую руду при рассматриваемых кондициях; формирование планов горных работ по принципу соответствия рыночных и расчетных цен на добытую руду; оперативное управление горными работами (подбор оптимальной «шихты», формирование рудопотоков, организация транспорта, подъема, складирования, ведение очистных, подготовительных, горно-капитальных и других работ).
The meaning, general principles, methodological foundations, and examples of cross-cutting nanotechnology education are reviewed. This education includes students' mastering the basics of nanotechnology in physics and chemistry classes, studying the possibilities of nanotechnology in special courses and oriented (on nano-objects) training of the best graduates in postgraduate studies in "Chemical Physics" and "Physical Chemistry".
For the first time in the world the methodology of economic and mathematical modeling and optimization of parameters and indicators of geothermal technological complexes was created, the bases of their design were developed and more than ten pre-project documents and investment projects were created, under which the construction was started, geothermal systems were built and operated in Russia and near abroad. The methodology of geological and economic evaluation of the first in the world practice geothermal resources and prospects of their development was developed, the following was done: calculation of the resource base, mapping and division into areas of density and economic feasibility of geothermal resources of Russia (in particular, its central regions).
A model (algorithm) for constructing rational fuel and energy balances of Russian regions is developed. The research is aimed at ensuring the rational and efficient use of fuel and energy resources of Russia. When building the fuel and energy balance of the region the possibility of using the local fuels is taken into account. This model is built and pre-tested on the example of the Leningrad Region.
The stress state of artificial monolithic pillars under the combined system of field development, which is affected by the rock pressure of hanging wall rocks and the active pressure of loose rock filling located in the chamber of the 2nd stage, was analyzed. As a result of calculations the optimum length of of the 1st stage chamber is 8 m, length of the 2nd stage II chamber is 40 m, hardening deposit strength is 3 MPa.
On the basis of economic-mathematical models (EMM) a comparative assessment of the influence of the main natural factors on the design, technological, exergy and economic parameters and performance of geothermal heating systems (GHS) was carried out. It allowed creating and recommending a new express methodology of their calculation on the territory of Russia. The created methods of EMM and express analysis can provide the first stages of GHS design and, in particular, justification of investments and development of business plans. Examples are given for promising regions of Russia.
Обоснованы необходимость и целесообразность освоения геотермальных ресурсов. Рассмотрены объективные в субъективные причины замедленного развития геотермальной энергетики. Проанализированы недостатки и предложены некоторые пути их устранения при геолого-разведочных работах, оценке ресурсов, запасов геотермальной энергии и технологии разработки геотермальных месторождений.
Правильный выбор системы подземной разработки и ее основных конструктивных элементов особенно важен для предприятий, разрабатывающих сложные жильные формы. На таких предприятиях производственный процесс обычно завершается получением концентратов, поэтому эффективная система разработки должна обеспечить минимальную стоимость конечной продукции. В связи с этим выбор системы разработки включает следующие этапы: отбор эффективных систем разработки по горнотехническим и технико-экономическим факторам; сравнительную экономическую оценку отобранных систем разработки; промышленные исследования отобранных систем разработки и уточнение их основных конструктивных элементов; технико-экономический анализ систем и рекомендация наиболее эффективных вариантов ...
Одно из полиметаллических месторождений Союза, где мощность жил колеблется от нескольких сантиметров до 2—3 м и углы падения от 25 до 90°, представлено разнообразными жильными формами, среди которых широко распространены ветвящиеся рудные тела. Особенно сложна разработка жил, ветвящихся по восстанию, так как приемлемость производительной на тонких жилах системы с магазинированием руды определяется возможностью частичного выпуска руды из разветвленных магазинов на общий этажный штрек. От этого зависят выбор варианта системы разработки,* объем подготовительно-нарезных работ, производительность труда и себестоимость руды. Возможность частичного выпуска при одновременной отбойке во всех разветвлениях жилы (основной жилы и апофиз) определяется скоростью истечения руды из магазинов по жиле и апофизам ...