Uralian, Anabar, and Brazilian diamond collections were studied by infrared spectrometry method. For reconstruction of thermal conditions of diamond formation were plotted Taylor Wayne diagrams with calculated isothermal curves. Diagrams of B2-defects distribution and H-centres were done. The conclusion about thermal formation conditions and possible belonging to the sea stream gravels were done.
There is full rationale of the phenomenological model of complicated riphean fractured carbonate reservoirs of Yurubcheno-Tokhomskaya oil-gas bearing area, created for simulation of development process for unique oil and gas deposits. The block discrete organization of these complex structure reservoirs are allow them non-additive and non-linear properties under development. Their marked similarity of their structure in a wide range of sizes, as well as the phenomenon of self-organization characteristic of complex nonequilibrium systems. Based on these production rates and their total cumulative production within such hydrocarbon obey a power law distribution, which is characteristic of the behavior of many nonlinear systems and can be described by Pareto. To implement the suggested model has been written special computer program compatible with the hydrodynamic simulation «Tempest MORE» of «Roxar».
Acting in Russia methodology of estimation and expert’s examination of calculated mineral reserves has been organized in the Soviet period, during development of the rigidly centralized system of the state planning and management. Since, 20 years there isn’t in the country any state monopoly (and financing) in the mining brunch and geological exploration. The new approaches are needed in procedure of estimating mineral reserves explored by the private enterprises. Anyway, functions, which the State Commission on mineral reserves (SCR) used to carry out in the Soviet time, remain nearly the same at present. Its full-scale authority, obligatory specifications are in clear contradiction with real economic relationship in the country. Computer modeling of ore bodies, composed on the base of geostatistical analysis of the exploration data, determines their natural contours and the ore grade distribution far more precisely than the formal index of the reserve’s category. There isn’t any necessity to approve in the SCR the so called group of the ore deposit complexity, nor the Technical-economic validation of limiting conditions. The mere procedure of the state approval of explored ore reserves ought to have the record keeping character.
The problem to increase of deposit oil recovery with difficult stocks high-viscosity oil and bitumens is considered. Results of experimental research to decrease the effective viscosity of oil samples and increase in mobility are considered at influence of superheated steam with addition in the heat-carrier of insignificant volumes of reagent (kerosene, diesel fuel) in 0,001-0,02 % of weight. It is recommended to apply thermal and plasma-pulse influence on a layer to increase of oil recovery. Results of practical technology application are given in several geological conditions.
Review of the up-to-date state of the mineral resources base of uranium shows that the current value of uranium production from the Russian ore deposits can not supply even the country’s internal needs as at present so in the close five year future. In the vastest country, any large nor super-large uramum ore deposit was not discovered during last two decades or more. Actually advised for prospecting areas have within their limits an appraised amount of 5-10 thousand tons of the metal as hypothetical resources (Pi category), which indicates the principally low potential of those territories, the low probability to discover there some large uranium ore bodies. The situation needs to research some ways for more effective forecasting of promising uranium-bearing structures. For the purpose, the principal commercial type of uranium deposits are considered on the base of analysis of their ore-forming and uranium-concentrating processes. By example of the unique ore bodies of the Athabasca region, there are distinguished several, disengaged in time, preparative and concentrating processes subsequently participating in the uranium ore forming. Comparison of deposits in the Athabasca province and the Ladoga region shows that in the latter ones ore bodies are connected with the lesser number of oregenerating processes, and thus, those objects have the lower uranium-bearing potential. In the whole, analysis of the actual state of the uranium mineral resources base and the potential uranium-bearing of the Russia’s geological structures leads to conclusion about necessary strengthening of geological trend in metallogeny-forecasting and prospecting for uranium. It means development of the complex geological, geophysical, mineralogical-geochemical and some other typees of investigations aimed for revealing of the structural-substantial peculiarities in the uranium-promising formations and geological structures, as well as to thorough study of the ore-forming systems evolution.
Globalization of the world economy has started first of all within the mineral resources market which is dominated many years by transnational corporations. Expansion of mining areas through national borders, of partnership between domestic and foreign companies is accompanied by development of national and international standards for reporting of mineral resources and available ore reserves. There are, among the most authoritative codes, the Australasian JORC Code and the Model Code of Combined committee CRIRSCO. In Russia (USSR) the Classification of explored reserves has been approved by the State for the First Five-Year Plan – for purpose of the completely centralized record keeping of the country mineral resources. Since, during its «socialist evolution» this record system strengthened in Russia such principles of estimating explored ore reserves and expected resources which make difficult the adaptation of our Classification to standards and categories accepted in most of other countries. The step in this direction was made by drawing up the project of «Guidelines on Alignment of Russian minerals reporting standards and the CRIRSCO Template». As a consultation draft for comments, the document has been prepared by the group of experts incorporating leading professional researchers of FGU «GKZ», CRIRSCO, mining companies. It seems, this approach process will need the time and corrections of many factors in geological exploration practice, in the State system of record keeping for reserves and resources.
In the following article, we have studied the variations of natural irradiation of diamond crystals. The natural diamonds in some cases show homogeneous green colour, caused by irradiation of the entire crystals volume. Radiation damage effects, produced by the low-radiation doses, are detected by the luminescence of the GR1 system. The high-radiation doses cause bluish hue, turning into a greenish colour, while the maximum level of volume irradiation produces the black crystals. The crystals with homogeneous volumetric black colour distribution were also studied. The major source of radiation in such cases may represent a local stream containing water rich in 222 Rn and its decay products. There is a review of the geological environment in which diamonds could be irradiated due to the decay of the 222 Rn containing in water.
The article presents the results of a study of the internal structure of highly elongated diamond crystals from placers in the Krasnovishersky district of the Urals. Very elongated crystals are found within diamond-bearing placer with unrevealed primary sources. Determining the conditions of such crystals formation can help one to determine the primary deposits type. There are three hypotheses for the formation of the elongated shape of such crystals: 1) crys- tals initially elongated along the <100> (strongly distorted octahedra); 2) individual crystals of columnar aggregates; 3) elongated crystals fragments. To study the internal structure, we selected three most elongated individuals of the 155 crystals samples. The study of the internal structure of selected crystals with the usage of photoluminescent (PL) tomography, cathodoluminescence (CL), and optical microscopy has shown that these samples are fragments of lar- ger single crystals. CL imaging allowed to determine slip lines within the crystal's volume. The recorded PL spectra show the 912, 946, and 986 nm peaks, which are characteristic of crystals with plastic deformation. The revealed fea- tures are indicators of plastic deformation accompanying the destruction of the crystals. The significant dissolution following the destruction of the crystals led to the rounding of the vertices and edges of their fragments. Apparently, most of the very elongated crystals from placers with unknown sources are also highly dissolved isometric crystal fragments. The obtained results have shown that the deformation and dissolution of diamond crystals are related events characteristic of diamonds from hitherto undetected, but highly productive primary deposits.