Oil and gas are the most important resources of the Arctic region. Oil and gas prospecting, exploration and development in the Arctic region is associated with solving complex technical and technological problems. One of the most important achievements was the discovery of the global Arctic zone of oil and gas occurrence. Numerous local objects were mapped and 22 hydrocarbon deposits were found on the shelves of the Barents, Pechora and Kara Seas. In connection with the prospects of developing oil and gas exploration in other Arctic waters (the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea, the Chukchi Sea) geophysical surveys and deep drilling were pro-posed to be carried out. In the area of transit shallow water it is advisable to use jack-up platforms with retractable legs. Deep drilling from islands is suggested for other parts of the seas with increasing depth and difficult ice conditions (icebergs, drifting ice fields, storms) and other climatic characteristics that increase the risk of drilling from offshore platforms. For performing hydrological and geophysical studies (studies of temperatures in layers, salinity, density, gas hydrates, and other characteristics of water in marine basins) it is possible to use «point» drilling and submarine fleet to study bottom sediments and geological section in promising areas.
Uralian, Anabar, and Brazilian diamond collections were studied by infrared spectrometry method. For reconstruction of thermal conditions of diamond formation were plotted Taylor Wayne diagrams with calculated isothermal curves. Diagrams of B2-defects distribution and H-centres were done. The conclusion about thermal formation conditions and possible belonging to the sea stream gravels were done.
Collection of Urals diamonds from Mining museum was studied by infrared spectrometry method. For thermal conditions reconstruction of diamond formation were constructed Taylor Wayne diagrams with calculated isothermal curves. Diagram of B2 defects distribution was done. Analyzed geographical location of diamonds. The conclusion about thermal formation conditions and possible belonging to the sea stream gravels were done.