The issues of energy saving in pyrometallurgical production during processing of mineral raw materials in ore-thermal furnaces are particularly important for the development of new energy-efficient technologies. The reduction of the specific power consumption during melting at different stages of heating and melting of charge materials when modeling is related to obtaining kinetic curves in the process of kyanite concentrate regeneration in polythermal conditions. Based on practical data of carbo-thermal reduction the mathematical modeling of reduction processes from alumosilicic raw materials – kyanite was carried out. In this work, the nonisothermal method based on a constant rate of charge heating (i.e. a linear dependence between time and temperature) was used for the reduction of kyanite charge, which saves electrical energy. The experiments were carried out on a high-temperature unit with a heater placed in a carbon-graphite crucible. Based on the obtained kinetic dependences of nonisothermal heating of enriched kyanite concentrates in plasma heating conditions we obtained a number of kinetic anamorphoses of the linear form which point to the possibility of describing the reaction rate using the modified Kolmogorov – Erofeev equation for given heating conditions and within a narrow temperature range. The complex of mathematical modeling makes it possible to create a control algorithm of technological process of reduction of kyanite concentrate to a metallized state within the specified temperature range for the full flow of reaction exchange and to reduce the specific power consumption by 15-20 %. With the help of the received kinetic dependences, taking into account the thermodynamics of processes and current state of the art it is possible to create a universal thermal unit for the optimal carbothermal reduction of charge to a metallized state (alloy) with minimum power inputs compared to existing technologies.
The reduction kinetics of serial phase transitions of iron oxides during reduction to a metallized state with different modes of technical hydrogen supply has been studied and substantiated. The results of the pellets formation when 3-5 % molasses is added to the red mud as a binding reagent are presented. The dependences of the reduction rate of iron oxides on the hydrogen flow rate are obtained. Based on the results of the experiments, a kinetic model was constructed, and with the help of X-ray phase and spectral analysis, it was proved that the agglomerates formed after heat treatment received high strength due to the adhesion of reduced iron particles with red mud particles. The use of a new type of charge materials in melting units will reduce the amount of emissions and dust fractions, as well as increase the metal yield.
Transportation and refining of heavy metal-bearing oil are associated with the problems of localized destruction of metal structures and elements due to corrosion. In the process of equipment operation, it was revealed that premature failure of steel coils of heating tube furnaces at oil refineries and petrochemical plants was associated with insufficient strength and corrosion resistance of the steelwork. The study of the effect that structure and phase composition of 15KH5M-alloy steel elements of heating furnaces at oil refineries have on the corrosion properties, associated with mass loss and localized destructions in the process of heat treatment, allows to develop protective measures and determine heating modes with a rate-limiting step of oxidation. The rate of various corrosion types of 15KH5M steel is used as an indicator to assess the effectiveness of the applied modes of coil heat treatment in order to increase their corrosion resistance and improve their operational characteristics. Conducted experiments on heat treatment of certain steel coil sections allowed to determine rational heating modes for the studied coils, which made it possible to reduce their mass loss and increase corrosion resistance of working surfaces in the process of operation. Proposed heat treatment of steel coils at specified intervals of their operation in the tube furnaces creates conditions for their stable performance and affects the degree of industrial and environmental safety, as well as reduces material costs associated with the repair and replacement of individual assemblies and parts of tube furnaces.
The article is devoted to the 150 th anniversary of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements by D.I.Mendeleev. The fundamental law of nature, discovered by D.I.Mendeleev has anomalies and paradoxes associated with certain groups of metals. When studying the physical and chemical properties of complex metal compounds, many discrepancies can be found, namely, the location of elements in groups, which primarily relate to metals with different valences. By studying the approaches and methods for predicting the arrangement of chemical elements, it can be established that D.I.Men deleev eliminated many differences for some metals during the formation of the Periodic system of chemical elements. D.I.Mendeleev developed a principle that excludes such errors when finding and discovering new elements. Analytical studies conducted by a Russian scientist helped to calculate the atomic masses and describe the properties of three ele ments not known at that time – «eka-boron», «eka-silicon», «eka-aluminum», the existence of which was proved and confirmed by subsequent discoveries of scandium, germanium, boron, and gallium. The paper provides a significant as sessment of the forecasting of metals in various groups of the periodic system. Changes in the properties of some metals significantly influenced their location in the table of D.I.Mendeleev.
The article is a continuation of the research on the production of silver rubles and the development of Russian coinage. Graduates of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University contributed to the reputation and history of the Saint-Petersburg Mint as an advanced and high-tech production. The article describes the beginning of the development of silver ruble production, the use of ores from the Nerchinskoye deposit in the Transbaikalia to produce the main raw material in the form of concentrates and a silver alloy. The materials for the study used unique exhibits of the Mining Museum of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University, which are associated with the history of coinage and the Saint-Petersburg Mint. Some samples of lead-silver ores cast billets, and stamped coins were studied to determine the technological features of their manufacture. An analytical study of the features of minting and obtaining the first Russian silver coins according to some data of the royal decrees was carried out. The current level of technology and knowledge, as well as the special equipment of the laboratories of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University, made it possible to re-evaluate the characteristic features of the production of silver coins.
Monetary industry combines several stages of metallurgical processes, which are continuously improved with the development of technology and the level of knowledge in the field of non-ferrous metals. The graduates of the Mining Institute, metallurgists of several generations, took part in establishment the Mint and development of technology to produce coins. Since January 24, 1718, when Peter the Great signed the decree «on production of small and large coins ...», the history of the monetary system of Russia and the coining of the first silver rubles began, which subsequently formed the basis of money relations. Twenty-four graduates of the mining and metallurgical departments of the Mining University worked as heads and münzmeister of the Mint. Silver rubles and work of Russian münzmeisters provided financial stability in Tsarist Russia from 1718 to 1917 and laid the foundation for further development of the monetary industry, taking into account new knowledge in the field of enrichment, preparation of polymetallic ores and their melting, and also stamping and processing of precious metals. This is the history of Russia and St. Petersburg, it combined the history of the Mining University, which this year will be 245 years old. It is of scientific interest to restore historical justice and update the methodological knowledge in the field of technology of monetary industry and metallurgical processes.
In the aluminum industry, the largest amount of waste is red mud (RM). that is a solid bauxite residue after hydrochemical processing and extraction of alumina. The topicality of its processing was shown by the ecological catastrophe in Hungary (2010), where the bund wall of the slurry storage was destroyed and the viscous mass of fine red mud fell on thousands of hectares of land. The risks of a recurrence of such a catastrophe increase due to the increased natural disasters: earthquakes, torrential rains and floods, as well as terrorist attacks. Therefore, it is proposed to exclude the storage of red mud in sludge storages and organize its shipment in transportable form to processing complexes. The article presents the results of scientific research and the experience of complex processing of red sludge on an industrial scale with the production of new types of marketable products.
The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.
Many types of carbon-containing organic compounds and all possible carbon-containing products or wastes in low demand can be used to produce thermal energy. A technology has been developed for producing highly flammable briquettes on the basis of bituminous coal. These briquettes have a special incendiary layer. It is easily ignites from low energy heat sources (e.g. matches), and then flame spreads to the rest of briquette. Use of coal slacks and paper wastes as carbon-containing components playing the role of binders provides an opportunity to get a fuel briquette easy in terms of production and plain in composition while at the same time dispose of coal and paper wastes. Such briquettes may also have a special incendiary layer. Technology for fuel briquettes production from wood and slate wastes employed no binding agents, as wood products acted as binders. Thus technologies have been developed to produce fuel briquettes from various carbon-containing materials in low demand. The briquettes are intended for household boilers, fireplaces, different ovens in order to cook food, heat residential and utility premises, cabins, etc.
As the world oil market tends to be highly volatile, the coal becomes a primary source of organic raw materials for chemical and metallurgical industries. Fossil coals can accumulate high amounts of elements and mixtures quite often reaching commercially valuable concentrations. Reserves of scandium and other rare elements in coal deposits in Siberia alone are sufficient to satisfy the expected global demand for several decades. This study is intended to solve complex tasks associated with extraction of metal oxides using the developed enrichment method to ensure the required thermal plasticity determining the quality and properties of metallurgical coke. Laboratory experiments have been conducted for the enrichment of high-ash coals containing the highest concentrations of metals. Thermal plasticity values have been determined with the help of Gieseler plastometer . Using modern technologies and equipment individual deposits can be turned into profitable production of enriched coking coals with concurrent extraction of rare metals. It has been proven that the highest commercial potential lies with the extraction of scandium and some other rare metals in the form of oxides from the coal.
In this article the problem of receiving high-quality cast strips from the magnesium alloys received by units of twin roll casting process in the combined methods is discussed. Production of sheets from magnesium alloys combination of casting and rolling at continuous giving of liquid melt to the rotating rolls is perspective and more economic method. Features of crystallization of magnesium alloys of AZ31 and AZ61 in a gap of rolls crystallizers depending on heat exchange conditions at change of technological parameters are considered. Due to impact on melt in forming system it is possible to provide formation of equal fine-grained structure of sheet hire without superficial defects. Development of the production technology of sheets from magnesium alloys creates possibility of their use of automobile branch as the facilitated details of bodies instead of the knots made of steel.
The problem of auto-feeding of aluminum fluoride with high bulk density is discussed. The possibility of reducing the specific consumption of aluminum fluoride in relation to the rational choice of physical and chemical characteristics is studied.
The problem of increase of energy performances for higher amperage aluminum pots is discussed during magnet dynamic instability at anode effect. The concept of aluminum production without anode effects which is connected with monitoring of key parameters and discrete alumina feeding is offered.
All types of raw materials used in aluminum production, are finely dispersed structures, which cause dusting during manufacturing operations, which leads to the formation of substandard raw material deposits. Their turnover in primary production contributes to the deterioration of techno-economic parameters of the process. Alumina dust samples werea collected with a mark of 16,0 meters on aluminum smelters in Russia, in the process of various technologies application. While in the upper layers alumina absorbss moisture, fluorides, and carbon. Penetration of fluoride in the amount of alumina particles depends of the crystallographic characteristics of the grains. At high stratification of the particles, fluorides are evenly distributed on the surface, and in the bulk of the particles. Mostly solid fluorides penetrate into cracks and deformation of the grains of alumina and hydrogen fluoride is adsorbed on the surface with the formation of aluminum fluoride. Alumina dust produced by the company operating for a long time with the cryolite ratio 2,2-2,35, contains a large amount of silicon. Silicon compound coat grain acicular alumina film.
The object of study is a modern aluminum electrolysis with prebaked anodes with 175 kA Tajik Aluminum Plant. When the load current change the physical conditions of displacement components of the melt, which are associated with higher speeds layers of metal and the electrolyte in the electrolytic bath. Changes in hydrodynamic conditions bath melt lead to the need to adjust the content of the main components of the melt on the bath ratio, to ensure maximum efficiency of the process.
The problem of the automated control of technological process of reduction aluminium process for superpower pots is discussed. The algorithm and system of optimum regulation of technological parameters by means of the alumina automated systems are developed. Offered computer neuron site model provides management efficiency.
The problem of increase of overall performance of powerful aluminum reduction pots at indemnification of metal losses is discussed during of magnet-dynamic movements. The scheme of asymmetric busbar is developed for increase of electrolysis productivity at the expense of MGD-stability.