An essential requirement for effective and safe deposit development is good geomechanical software. Nowadays software packages based on finite element method are used extensively to estimate stress-strain state of the rock mass. Their quality use can only be assured if boundary conditions and integral mechanical properties of the rock mass are known. In mining engineering this objective has always been achieved by means of experimental observations. The main source of information on initial and man-induced stress-strain state of the rock mass is natural measurement of displacement characteristics. Measurement of geodetic data (coordinates, heights, directions) in the period between alteration cycles allows to plot a field of displacement vectors for the points in question. Taken together, displacement vectors provide information on the objective stress-strain state of the Earth crust. Basing on it, strain tensors, displacement components, directions and rates of compression and tension can be calculated in the examined area. However, differential characteristics of any physical vector field – namely, curl and divergence – need to be taken into account. Divergence is a single value (scalar) associated with a single point. Vector field as a whole can be described with divergence scalar field. Divergence indicates the sign (positive or negative) of volume changes in the infinitesimal region of space and characterizes vector flux in the nearest proximity and in all directions from a given point. In the paper authors propose a method to estimate divergence using discrete geodetic observations of displacement occurring on the surface of examined territory. It requires construction of formulas that model vector field for any point of the area. It is proposed to use power polynomials that describe displacement in three directions (x, y, z). These formulas allow to estimate field vectors in any given point, i.e. to form vector tubes. Then areas of input and output cross-section, as well as divergence values are calculated. This increases the quality of geodetic observation and provides opportunities for more precise modeling of the rock mass disrupted by mining operations, using modern software packages.
A version of the project of the concept of topographic, geodetic and cartographic support of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation based on the use of modern means and tools is presented, including its content. The results of the development in the Arctic, carried out with the participation of the authors in 1961-1967 and 1975-1992, are presented in detail. The strategic importance and great attention of the state structures to the development of the Arctic zone is underlined. The key moments of the development of topographic, geodetic and cartographic support for this region are given. The role of leading research institutes in this process is shown. The proposed concept includes six stages. When creating a planimetric geodetic base, the authors recommend an alternative innovative algorithm for determining the height H without first calculating the latitude B and use only satellite measurements. The extremely important question of converting geodetic coordinates B, L into rectangular plane coordinates x, y is considered. For the territory of the Russian Federation new developments are proposed, they use data from satellite determinations, a new approach to the determination of normal heights and the conversion of rectangular space coordinates into rectangular plane coordinates necessary for mapping. The required regulations of reference documentation for the topographic survey of the shelf are shown. The importance of implementing the concept in connection with the definition of the outer boundary of the continental shelf of the Arctic Ocean is shown.
The article deals with the main issues of studying of one type of rock bursts which lead to gound destruction of coal mine openings. The research is focused on rock burst prediction. Some cases of rock bursts are analised. The paper points out factors affecting this kind of rock failure. It also presents some simulation models and numerical examples. The results of the research show that it is possible to plan safe mining operations under different mining and geological conditions.
The article describes the method of modeling a coal seam stress-strain state and an enclosing rock massif when degasified. An approach to defining the model input parameters, calculated with the porosity and gas pore pressure coefficient, was shown. The importance of preliminary calculations, indicating possible coal seam shrinkage and surface subsidence was underlined. It shows formation mechanism for coal seam zones with elevated gas pressure, where gas recovery is efficient.
Application of terrestrial laser scanning for creation of three-dimensional models of Shukhov (Shabolovskaya) tower and determination of its geometric characteristics is considered. It helps increase the reliability of operation of the facilities.
Notes the importance of adjusting regulations to identify areas of high rock pressure in the modern conditions of development outburst coal seams. Partial results are estimates of changes in the width of the pressure depends on the length of output. The mechanism of the formation of technological outburst zones. Shows the software package to build a refined and unloading zones of high rock pressure.
The simulation results of the deformed state of rocks at the side of the open excavation with different forms. The technique of modeling. Emphasizes the importance of studying deformation processes taking into account nonlinearity circuit open excavation.
This article respond the method of determining the strength parameters of rock is considered a rapid assessment of the current state of stability mine array is described.
Article is devoted to assessing and controlling the risk of deformation during the construction of pits in a densely built-up. Results of modeling the stress-strain state of the enclosing soil. Shows the organization of systematic observations of the deformation of the pit.
The article provides a background to the implementation of monitoring ground displacement using radar scanning system GPRI-2. The advantages of this approach. Specific observations are made within the framework of monitoring measurements.
The paper presents comparison of classical methods of instrumental observations of slope stability with survey technology based on the use of laser scanning systems, as an example of the organization of monitoring the stability of the phosphogypsum stack Ltd «Balakovo mineral fertilizers».
Article is devoted to predicting the effects of underground facilities on the environment. The system of observations of the deformation of the earth's surface in the construction of the vertical development. Performed a preliminary analysis of the possible development of the deformation process. The comparison of calculated and actual data. Recommendations on the organization of the deformation monitoring.
This article respond the question about using the digital photographic data in open-cast mine for specification of structural easing factor and his application for modeling of stsbility in open-cast mines with «Phase2» and «NEDRA».
The paper considers the existing standards in the field of rock movement and protection of engineer constructions from harmful influence of mining operations. It is emphasized the necessity in revision of some standards in compliance with the real mining production.
The influence of speed and discreteness of bottom-hole movement on deformation of rock massif and earth surface, on the character of rock massif shearing and the form of its destruction is considered.
The approach to prediction and prevention of dynamic soil failure of preparatory workings is described. Mathematical modeling of the stress-strain state of the rock massif is used. An algorithm for solving a nonlinear problem, which is implemented in software complexes, is given. The mechanism of fracture of a solid layer in the excavation soil is shown. Practical recommendations are developed based on the results of the research.