A version of the project of the concept of topographic, geodetic and cartographic support of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation based on the use of modern means and tools is presented, including its content. The results of the development in the Arctic, carried out with the participation of the authors in 1961-1967 and 1975-1992, are presented in detail. The strategic importance and great attention of the state structures to the development of the Arctic zone is underlined. The key moments of the development of topographic, geodetic and cartographic support for this region are given. The role of leading research institutes in this process is shown. The proposed concept includes six stages. When creating a planimetric geodetic base, the authors recommend an alternative innovative algorithm for determining the height H without first calculating the latitude B and use only satellite measurements. The extremely important question of converting geodetic coordinates B, L into rectangular plane coordinates x, y is considered. For the territory of the Russian Federation new developments are proposed, they use data from satellite determinations, a new approach to the determination of normal heights and the conversion of rectangular space coordinates into rectangular plane coordinates necessary for mapping. The required regulations of reference documentation for the topographic survey of the shelf are shown. The importance of implementing the concept in connection with the definition of the outer boundary of the continental shelf of the Arctic Ocean is shown.
It is shown that the position of landmarks urban land area up to 2 hectares should be determined with errors in relation to the items city geodetic network mt = 0,05 m, for sites larger area – mt = 0,10 m. Formulas calculate the parameters theodolite moves (angular and linear residuals, stroke lengths and the number of sides) and the parameters of the cadastral survey (distances to landmarks).
The algorithm of calculation flat rectangular coordinates, connectig of meridians and scale of projection Gauss in 6-degree zone by geodetic coordinates is offered. This algorithm for as alternative of algorithm Gauss is used. The algorithm Gauss manycratical is kindperformansed and today is used. Also this algorithm an sientific academic and informatical literature, and too an normative-technical geodetic documents is used.
The main types of surveying, made during the construction of cable-stayed bridges in the city of Vladivostok. Among them: the geodetic staked basis, survey work in the construction of piers and installation of anchors to mount guys pole and span, geodetic support for installation, metal core, geodetic monitoring of cable-stayed bridge in the construction process of its construction.
The implementation technique of land measuring at construction of Mariinsky theatre second stage in Saint Petersburg is presented. Basic steps of these works, such as designing, creation and monitoring of supporting geodetic network, land measuring at the establishment of experimental trench, land measuring at substracture construction of the theatre, precipitation and circumferential building careens supervision are investigated in detail.
For a polygonal land plot with n vertices, it is proposed to determine along each side of the plot the coordinates of additional points. By performing a linear approximation on these data, n straight line equations can be obtained. The intersection of the (i – 1)th and ith straight lines will give the coordinates of the ith boundary marker, by which, using the known formulas, the area of the land lot can be calculated. Model studies of approximation accuracy and accuracy of determining the coordinates of boundary marks were made. It is shown that if the coordinates of intermediate points in every 2 meters along the sides of a square with side length 20 meters, the accuracy of definition of coordinates of boundary marks can be increased in 1.8 times and in 2.4 times if the points in every 1 meter. The corresponding number of times will also increase the accuracy of determining the area of the plot.
The problem of strict equation of geodetic networks developed by a set of stations of satellite navigation systems is raised, which is caused by the fact that as a result of post-processing by existing programs receive covariance matrices of errors of increments of spatial coordinates for each measured side of the geodetic network separately. The matrix does not take into account the correlation that is caused by the fact that the results of observations of many satellites are used simultaneously to determine the coordinate increments on all measured sides of the network. It is shown that for a rigorous equation, the covariance matrix of satellite measurement errors should be determined as a result of correlation analysis, and the equation should be performed by the regularized least squares method.
The model accuracy investigations of triangle or quadriangle form plots are given. It is shown that the most advantageous forms are squares and equal-sides triangles in order to provide the maximum accuracy.
The algorithm of weight optimization is based in consecutive order. The necessary formulas are given for its practical realization .