Today energy consumption is constantly growing while explored reserves of easily accessible oil are depleting, which is a reason why most countries tend to diversify their energy mix, develop non-hydrocarbon energy sources and use domestic types of fuel, including the low grade ones. Thereby interest is raised to such a source of hydrocarbons as combustible shales. Combustible shales appear to be one of the highest-potential types of organic raw materials, which may offset and in future even substitute oil products and gas. The paper is investigating behavior and structure of combustible shales during heat treatment in order to identify their possible industrial applications. A synchronous thermal analysis has been held, chemical composition of combustible shales’ mineral fraction and optimal conditions for shale fines briquetting have been determined.
The reserves of combustible slates of Russia in shale oil and gas equivalent are more than the reserves of oil and natural gas. The formation of a large volume of ash is a major problem connected to the processing and the usage of the combustible slates. It is possible to look at this problem from a different angle of vision if a mineral part of slates is considered as a complex organo-mineral raw material where a mineral substance of the slates is the same raw material as the organic one. For this purpose, it is required to study in detail the physicochemical characteristics of the combustible slates and the behavior of the organic and the mineral parts of the slates during the heat treatment. This research focuses on the phase composition of Leningrad fuel shale and its changes on pyrolysis. They were studying the phase composition, the gas phase outlet, pyrolysis mass balance of combustible slates in the nitrogen atmosphere in the temperature range of 200-1000 °С, the porosity changes of combustible slate in the nitrogen atmosphere in the temperature range of 25-900 °С. It is determined that the main minerals of combustible slates are calcite (28 %), quartz (25 %), illite (17 %), and microcline (11 %). The temperature dependence of the shale porosity is studied in a nitrogen atmosphere and in air. The porosity changes in four stages: (I) 25-200 °C; (II) 200-400 °C; (III) 400-600 °C; (IV) 600-900 °C. The mass balance pyrolysis of combustible slates in a PTK_1.2_40 tube furnace is made up, in the nitrogen atmosphere of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C.
The article analyses the research results of preliminary biological treatment by silicate bacteria influence on roasting process of refractory off-balance copper-molybdenum ore.
Simmetry transformation crystalline structure proceeds by symmetry reactions. Unlike the chemical reactions that proceed in the liquids and the gases where ions or atoms move freely symmetry reactions proceed in solid bodies where structural units are set orderly.
The task of the colour metallurgy is the complex utilization of the ore matirial and increase in volume of the production with fall of the material expenditures in parallel in unit of the production. During the sulphate ores refining and the nickel and copper ones they extract cobalt, pre- cious and the part of the rare metals, trying realize the very possible cobalts and small part of the ores raws transfer to the nickel product. However nickel can not be separated from copper completely with help of the flotation and that is why they get the sulphate nickel product which has the weight to 4 % of the copper and the copper sulphide concentration with weight 3-6 %. Together with nickel turn the part of the cobalt into the copper concentration. In the school and reference books there are little scientific well-founded and coordinated facts in phases compound of the stanes and finestanes and besides about formes of the presence of the cobalt in the called metallurgy products. It is necessary the deep experience in the study of the christall chemical nature of the finestanes phases for the improvement in extract of cobalt to the nickel product during the flotation process.
At the present time the demand of manganese is high in Russia. Metallurgy industry lacks of high quality manganese products. They make strict requirements to manganese concentrates for phosphorous content. It is possible to increase the quality of manganese concentrates and to use law-quality manganese raw material in the processing by means of hydrometallurgical processing.
By working out of new technologies for fusion of sulphidic concentrates on matte and hardware registration to them special attention it is necessary to give possibilities of management of oxidation degree of malt in a reactionary zone and uniformity of oxidation process. In this connection development of the oxidation theory and behavior of sulfides in malt is of great importance for designing of fusion devices of sulphidic concentrates and revealing of management possibility of them.
Development of the oxidation theory of iron sulphide has great importance for understanding the physical and chemical nature of roasting and revealing possibility of its management.
It is studied influences of bacterial solution on the соpper-molybdenum sulfide ore. The studies on crushing and on changes in density of copper-molybdenum sulfide ore before treatment and after treatment of the bacterial solution.
This work examined alloys which are belonged to trinary system Cu – Co – S. Macrostructural anaylysis of the above-referenced alloys was carried out. The impact of ferrum on this alloys was demonstrated.
It is studied bioleaching of copper sulfide ore of Erdenetiin ovoo deposit. It is studied effect of ore size and pH of bacterial solution, the bacteria count of the bacte rial solution on the extraction of copper of bacterial leaching.
To establish the physicochemical nature of phases in matte and matte, it is necessary to consider binary systems Cu-S, Ni-S, Fe-S, because the structural components in these systems can serve as phases in matte and matte, as well as be the beginning of the formation of new phases in them.
The issues of chemical sulfuric-acid leaching of oxide manganese-containing raw materials in the presence of reducing agents for the purpose of further obtaining high-quality dephosphorus concentrates are considered. The efficiency of using organic acids and alcohols as reducing agents is shown.