When transporting overburden rocks in a cold season, the lower layer of materials freezes to working surfaces of transport equipment, and at long transportations – congeals under its own weight. As a result, up to 50 % of rock remains in the vehicle, while the unloaded part represents indiscreete frozen mass. It considerably complicates the process of unloading transport and leads to increased labor and financial expenses. A rational and effective remedy for these problems is transport equipment and bulk material processing with chemical agents of oil and petrochemical origin – mixtures of distillate and bottom frations obtained as a result of thermodestructive processes during petroleum feedstock manufacturing. The article presents data on the quality of distillates and residual products of oil recycling, which are used as initial components for producing preventive drugs, which are used to prevent sticking and freezing of overburden rocks during transportation and storage in the cold time of year, as well as drugs used for pit roads treatment in surface mining operations. Optimal component compositions of new petrochemicals are developed, and the physical and chemical properties of the received test samples have been studied.
Oil supplied for primary processing always undergoes preliminary preparation, the purpose of which is to eliminate the harmful effect of water and salt contained in the oil. It is thought that corrosion of the equipment is connected mainly with chlorides of magnesium and calcium, which are subjected to hydrolysis with the formation of hydrochloric acid. Under the influence of hydrochloric acid the destruction (corrosion) of metal equipment at technological plants occurs (especially refrigerating-condensing and heatexchange equipment, furnaces of rectification units etc.). The authors of the article, on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, provide their point of view on this process and give a methodology by which the process of preliminary oil dehydration and desalting can be controlled. The thermodynamic calculations executed for standard conditions on the basis of refer-enced data confirm a high probability of chemical interaction of iron with hydrogen ions, hy-drogen sulphide and especially with carbonic acid. This testifies to high activity of the carbon dioxide dissolved in water and the impossibility of hydrolysis of ions of magnesium, calcium and iron. The calculations show that only the hydrolysis of magnesium chloride is possible tak-ing into account the ionic composition of the water phase in the oil. It should be noted that the presence of ions of chlorine shifts the iron potential in a nega-tive direction and increases the speed of corrosion of petrochemical equipment. The solution of this problem is in the development of modern methods of crude oil dehydration and desalting. It is also, however, in an intensification of the processes of mixing water-oil emulsions with wash-ing water by using various physical fields (for example, ultrasound) and creating new effective mixing devices on the basis of them.
Agglomerates, sintered of the bauxite and limestone are need to reduce coke consumption in blast furnace slag smelting of high-alumina in order to get out of it quick-and heat-resistant cement. The peculiarity of such a high basicity sinter (the ratio of CaO / SiO2). The paper presents the results of studies demonstrating the ability of the liquid phase in the formation of sinter almost completely assimilate the lime. Bauxite highly basic sinter can be durable and resistant against destruction with open storage.