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Vol 243

Geology
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-13
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-14
  • Date published
    2020-06-14

Deep structure and geodynamic conditions of granitoid magmatism in the Eastern Russia

We investigated the deep structure of the lithosphere and the geodynamic conditions of granitoid magmatism in the Eastern Russia within the borders of the Far Eastern Federal District. The relevance of the work is determined by the need to establish the geotectonic and geodynamic conditions of the granitoids petrogenesis and ore genesis in the Russian sector of the Pacific Ore Belt. The purpose of the article is to study the deep structure of the lithosphere and determine the geodynamic conditions of granitoid magmatism in the East of Russia. The author's data on the magmatism of ore regions, regional granitoids correlations, archive and published State Geological Map data, survey mapping, deep seismic sounding of the earth's crust, gravimetric survey, geothermal exploration, and other geophysical data obtained along geotraverses. The magma-controlling concentric geostructures of the region are distinguished and their deep structure is studied. The connection of plume magmatism with deep structures is traced. The chain of concentric geostructures of Eastern Russia controls the trans-regional zone of leucocratization of the earth's crust with a width of more than 1000 km, which includes the Far Eastern zone of Li-F granites. Magmacontrolling concentric geostructures are concentrated in three granitoid provinces: Novosibirsk-Chukotka, Yano-Kolyma, and Sikhote-Alin. The driving force of geodynamic processes and granitoid magmatism was mantle heat fluxes in the reduced zones of the lithospheric slab. The distribution of slab windows along the Pacific mobile belt's strike determines the location of concentric geostructures and the magnitude of granitoid magmatism in the regional provinces. Mantle diapirs are the cores of granitoid ore-magmatic systems. The location of the most important ore regions of the Eastern Russia in concentric geostructures surrounded by annuli of negative gravity anomalies is the most important regional metallogenic pattern reflecting the correlation between ore content and deep structure of the earth's crust.

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Viktor I. Alekseev (2020) Deep structure and geodynamic conditions of granitoid magmatism in the Eastern Russia. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 259. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.259
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-28
  • Date accepted
    2020-05-28
  • Date published
    2020-06-10

The age of mineralization of Mayskoe gold ore deposit (Central Chukotka): results of Re-Os isotopic dating

The article presents the results of the sulfide mineralization dating of the Mayskoe gold ore deposit using the Re-Os isotope system and isochron age estimation method of the main sulfide minerals: arsenopyrite, pyrite, and antimonite. The complex multistage formation of the studied sulfides, as well as the close intergrowths of genetically different mineral phases, did not allow obtaining a single rhenium-osmium isochron corresponding to the formation time of sulfide mineralization. Isochrones for single minerals, collected from each sulfide sample, turned out to be the result of isotopically distinct components mixture (radiogenic crustal and non-radiogenic mantle) and do not make sense from the geochronological point of view. In terms of geology, the most significant result of the study is an age estimation of 128.8 ± 4.4 Ma, obtained for the sulfide mineralization of Mayskoe deposit using Re-Os isotope dating of single fractions of pyrite and antimonite of the ore mineralization stage. While arsenopyrite is most closely associated with gold mineralization, one of the arsenopyrite varieties corrodes framboidal pyrite of the pre-ore stage, has a maximum of the crust component in the osmium isotopic composition and forms a mixing line in the isochron diagram with an apparent formation age of 458 ± 18 Ma. The initial osmium isotopic composition of the studied sulfides indicates a mixed mantle-crust source of sulfide mineralization. The issue of simultaneous ore genesis and granitoid magmatism in the Mayskoe deposit remained unresolved (the age of granitoids according to the U-Pb zircon system is 108 Ma). However, a possible solution could be the further determination of the Re-Os isochron age of the ore mineralization sulphides from the single paragenesis of a specific sample containing both arsenopyrite and pyrite (+ antimonite) with gold.

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Dmitry S. Artemiev, Robert Sh. Krymsky, Boris V. Belyatsky, Dmitry S. Ashikhmin (2020) The age of mineralization of Mayskoe gold ore deposit (Central Chukotka): results of Re-Os isotopic dating. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 266. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.266
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-06
  • Date accepted
    2020-05-24
  • Date published
    2020-06-10

Revisiting the evolution of deformation zones under platform conditions in the case study of the Kungur Ice Cave (Cis-Urals)

Observations in mining tunnels and caves allow to identify composition and development specifics of fault structures under subsurface conditions at various stages of geological history. Basing on the existing formation model of Kungur Ice Cave karst system, author examines the transformations of deformation zones, occurring in the mass of interlaid sulfate and carbonate rocks under platform conditions. Morphologic specifics of vertical structures ­– organ pipes, developed within one of the gypsum-anhydrite units, are defined by evolution stages of disjunctive faults, penetrating the entire rock mass of the Ice Cave. Point infiltration of surface waters and formation of a single channel, where rock softening and taluses from overlapping deposits gradually occur, are currently considered to be the initiators of pipe formation. At a later stage a sink forms on the surface, increasing the amount of water coming to the karsting mass. However, the size of debris in the talus, incommensurate with the pipe head, rounded arches of separate pipes, fragments of feeder channels, characteristic for artesian conditions of underground water circulation, faceted rock debris from overlapping deposits, specifics of wall structure all define the priority of pipe formation over grottos and cave galleries. Plastic properties of gypsum sediments and processes of their hydration define secondary modifications of pipe walls up to complete filling of the voids and formation of secondary pillars with subsequent renewed formation of vertical channels – significantly smaller in diameter and formed by infiltration waters when subject to corrosion.

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Nataliya V. Lavrova (2020) Revisiting the evolution of deformation zones under platform conditions in the case study of the Kungur Ice Cave (Cis-Urals). Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 279. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.279
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-12
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-12
  • Date published
    2020-06-13

Management of hardening mixtures properties when stowing mining sites of ore deposits

Underground mining is characterized by the weakening of the bearing rock mass strata competence and the accumulation of mineral waste. The full use of subsurface resources is ensured by the use of technologies with filling voids by hardening mixtures, which requires high-quality raw materials to obtain the required strength. The deficit of the binding component can be filled with the use of granulated slags of blast-furnace process, mill tailings, ash-slags and other wastes. Most often, voids are laid by mixtures with a combination of cement and a binding component. Mixtures with ash-slag additives to cement in an equivalent amount are not inferior to the strength of the mixture only with cement, especially when grinding ash-slag. The properties of stowing rock masses when using composite binding components and inert fillers are controlled by mechanical, chemical, physical and energy effects at the stages of preparation and transportation of hardening mixtures. To obtain the active fraction of cement substitutes, disintegrators are used that apply the inertia forces of materials at a high speed of rotation with an increase in high activity indicators and lower energy costs. The components of hardening mixtures can be the majority of waste from mining and related industries, which is determined experimentally in specific conditions.

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Vladimir I. Golik, Yury V. Dmitrak, Vitaly I. Komashchenko, Nikolay M. Kachurin (2020) Management of hardening mixtures properties when stowing mining sites of ore deposits. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 285. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.285
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-05
  • Date accepted
    2020-05-24
  • Date published
    2020-06-10

Justification of stripping and development of a modular mine site for a combined coal mining method in Kuzbass on the example Baikaimskaya mine site

The article considers one actual method for development coal deposits in the Kuzbass by open-underground mining. The scientific and practical advantages of the proposed method due to the use of common infrastructure of coal mine and a modular mine site (subsequently transformed into a mining and technological structure operating according to the mine – longwall scheme) are presented. Currently, a development strategy for Kuzbass until 2035 has been developed. As part of the strategy, a draft program for subsoil use is being formed in the coal industry department. The program should take into account all the positive and negative aspects associated with coal mining in cities and municipal areas and also their prospects. In the Kuznetsk coal basin, 42 mines and 52 opencast mines are mining, of which 12 enterprises use partially unified infrastructure. According to the results of open-underground mining work conducted by the laboratory of the Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Coal SB RAS), the list of sites includes favorable mining and geological conditions with incidence angles of up to 18 degrees. As open-pit coal production increases, many sites encounter such a parameter as maximum allowable (boundary) strip ratio. At the stage of preparing the feasibility study for the development of a coal deposit, this coefficient is calculated first of all, since duration of enterprise’s work and its economic component depend on it. In order to increase parameters, it is necessary to carry out transition from open works to underground. As a result, coal mine will not work at a loss, providing production with an economically disadvantageous strip ratio.

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Roman I. Shishkov, Valerii A. Fedorin (2020) Justification of stripping and development of a modular mine site for a combined coal mining method in Kuzbass on the example Baikaimskaya mine site. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 293. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.293
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-07-24
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2020-07-24

Features of permeability anisotropy accounting in the hydrodynamic model

Important step in the construction of a geological and hydrodynamic model is to set the correct properties of the formations and further adapt the model to the historical development data. Main source of information on the geological properties of reservoirs is well logging data. Paper describes the application of the method for post-interpretation processing of logging data, with the help of which the lateral anisotropy value of the field site is found. Brief discussion on the algorithm for adapting the hydrodynamic model to the parameters of the formation using one reference well is given. Feature of the logging data application to study the phenomenon of permeability anisotropy is that this type of research is widespread, has sufficient information content, and the geophysical system itself does not require the inclusion of specialized instruments. Based on geophysical study, a volumetric model of the properties for oil and gas bearing formation is constructed, from which the permeability distribution is used, whose gradient allows establishing the directions of improved and deteriorated filtration properties. As a result, during adaption of the model, it was possible to achieve a difference in reserves between the geological and hydrodynamic models of 2.4 %, which is an acceptable deviation for further calculations. It was found that the direction of improved filtration properties has a northeastern direction at an angle of 35°, and the value of lateral anisotropy is 2.2. Obtained results of lateral anisotropy, taking into account the data on values of vertical anisotropy, are included in the field model, where it is planned to further study the effect of permeability anisotropy on formation productivity.

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Roman I. Yermekov, Vitaly P. Merkulov, Oksana S. Chernova, Mikhail O. Korovin (2020) Features of permeability anisotropy accounting in the hydrodynamic model. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 299. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.0.299
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-15
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-15
  • Date published
    2020-06-15

Description of steady inflow of fluid to wells with different configurations and various partial drilling-in

There are many equations of steady inflow of fluid to the wells depending on the type of well, presence or absence of artificial or natural fractures passing through the well, different degrees of drilling-in of the wellbores. For some complex cases, analytical solutions describing the inflow of fluid to the well have not yet been obtained. An alternative to many equations is the use of numerical methods, but this approach has a significant disadvantage – a considerable counting time. In this regard, it is important to develop a more general analytical approach to describe different types of wells with different formation drilling-in and presence or absence of fractures. Creation of this method is possible during modeling of fractures by a set of nodes-vertical wells passing from a roof to floor, and modeling of a wellbore (wellbores, perforation) by a set of nodes – spheres close to each other. As a result, based on this approach, a calculation algorithm was developed and widely tested, in which total inflow to the well consists of the flow rate of each node taking into account the interference between the nodes and considering the impermeable roof and floor of the formation. Performed modeling confirmed a number of known patterns for horizontal wells, perforation, partial drilling-in of a formation, and also allowed solving a number of problems.

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Valery A. Iktissanov (2020) Description of steady inflow of fluid to wells with different configurations and various partial drilling-in. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 305. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.305
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-11
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-11
  • Date published
    2020-06-11

Improving the geological and hydrodynamic model of a carbonate oil object by taking into account the permeability anisotropy parameter

Significant share of the developed oil assets related to carbonate complex-built objects has formidably increased in Russia, including the Perm Region. Reliable knowledge of the parameters for the cavern-pore type of the reservoir allows clarifying the existing geological and hydrodynamic models (GHM), selecting a rational development system, regulating the development processes and providing optimal geological and technical measures for this formation. In the construction and adaptation of GHM for oil fields, especially those related to complex-built carbonate reservoirs, knowledge of both horizontal and vertical permeability (anisotropy parameter) is important. When creating GHM of carbonate objects in Perm Region deposits, vertical permeability is often taken to be zero, although this is far from being the case. Determining the vertical permeability (anisotropy parameter), its dynamics when changing the formation and bottomhole pressures and using it in GHM is an urgent task that will improve the quality and reliability of using digital models to calculate and predict the oil production process. Article describes the methodology for determining permeability anisotropy according to the interpretation of hydrodynamic investigations of wells. Proposed methodology for determining the anisotropy parameter processed the results of more than 200 studies conducted on production and injection wells of the Famennian deposit at the Gagarinskoye field. For each lithological-facies zone, dependence of the permeability anisotropy index on the bottomhole pressure is constructed. To predict and evaluate the effectiveness of the applied geological and technical measures and technological development indicators, author modified the geological and hydrodynamic model taking into account the obtained dependencies on the change in the anisotropy parameter. Using a modified hydrodynamic model, it was possible to significantly improve the adaptation of both production and injection wells. Thus, the quality and reliability of the digital model of the Famennian deposit at the Gagarinskoye field for calculating and predicting the oil production process has improved.

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Dmitry A. Martyushev (2020) Improving the geological and hydrodynamic model of a carbonate oil object by taking into account the permeability anisotropy parameter. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 313. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.313
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-26
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-10
  • Date published
    2020-06-10

Theoretical analysis of frozen wall dynamics during transition to ice holding stage

Series of calculations for the artificial freezing of the rock mass during construction of mineshafts for the conditions of a potash mine in development was carried out. Numerical solution was obtained through the finite element method using ANSYS software package. Numerical dependencies of frozen wall thickness on time in the ice growing stage and ice holding stage are obtained for two layers of the rock mass with different thermophysical properties. External and internal ice wall boundaries were calculated in two ways: by the actual freezing temperature of pore water and by the temperature of –8 °С, at which laboratory measurements of frozen rocks' strength were carried out. Normal operation mode of the freezing station, as well as the emergency mode, associated with the failure of one of the freezing columns, are considered. Dependence of a decrease in frozen wall thickness in the ice holding stage on the duration of the ice growing stage was studied. It was determined that in emergency operation mode of the freezing system, frozen wall thickness by the –8 °C isotherm can decrease by more than 1.5 m. In this case frozen wall thickness by the isotherm of actual freezing of water almost always maintains positive dynamics. It is shown that when analyzing frozen wall thickness using the isotherm of actual freezing of pore water, it is not possible to assess the danger of emergency situations associated with the failure of freezing columns.

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Mikhail A. Semin, Lev Yu. Levin, Aleksandr V. Bogomyagkov (2020) Theoretical analysis of frozen wall dynamics during transition to ice holding stage. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 319. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.319
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-22
  • Date accepted
    2020-07-24
  • Date published
    2020-07-24

Methods for assessing the technical compatibility of heterogeneous elements within a technical system

The article provides methods for assessing the compatibility of elements in the design of complex technical systems. The compatibility of the elements is considered as the main indicator that determines the quality of systems including heterogeneous elements. The presented methods make it possible at the design stage to choose a technical solution that is most suitable for the project objectives, taking into account the operating conditions of the system. The methods make it possible to evaluate compatibility by a single and complex indicator. The choice of indicator depends on the purpose of the assessment. An example of methods implementation in the design of systems including an electric drive and pipeline shutoff valves is considered. It has been experimentally proved that in systems with low values ​​of the compatibility level, the actual power characteristics exceed the required values, which leads to additional voltages in the system elements and their breakdowns. The results of the assessment of typical systems allowed to identify the shortcomings of existing structures and propose alternative solutions to problems. The compatibility of elements within the framework of a technical system makes it possible to increase the functional efficiency of systems with minimum weight and size and power characteristics, to optimize the price-quality ratio, and to increase the competitiveness of the final product.

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Sergey A. Vasin, Alexander S. Vasilev, Elena V. Plahotnikova (2020) Methods for assessing the technical compatibility of heterogeneous elements within a technical system. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 329. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.329
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-11
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-11
  • Date published
    2020-06-11

Mathematical model of the liquefied methane phase transition in the cryogenic tank of a vehicle

In order to increase the efficiency of using vehicles (VEH) in mining and quarrying conditions, it is necessary to improve the components of gas equipment (cryogenic tank, gas nozzles, fuel supply cryogenic tubes, etc.) for supplying liquefied natural gas to the engine, as well as storage of liquid methane in a cryogenic tank with a long service life. For this, it is necessary to consider the process of heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas in a two-phase liquid-gas medium, taking into account the phase transition in the closed volume of the cryogenic tank under consideration. The article presents a model of unsteady heat and mass transfer of a two-phase liquefied methane medium in a developed two-tank cryogenic tank using a Cartesian coordinate system with fractional control volumes in space. The experimental data confirm the efficiency of using a cryogenic tank on the VEH platform, in which the run on liquefied methane compared to standard fuels is tripled, the shelf life of liquefied gas in the proposed cryogenic tank is 2-2.5 times longer than in the standard one.

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Otari N. Didmanidze, Alexander S. Afanasev, Ramil T. Khakimov (2020) Mathematical model of the liquefied methane phase transition in the cryogenic tank of a vehicle. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 337. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.337
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-15
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-15
  • Date published
    2020-06-15

Non-destructive testing of multilayer medium by the method of velocity of elastic waves hodograph

The method of velocity of elastic waves hodograph, aimed at non-destructive testing of structurally heterogeneous composite materials and products based on them, as well as multilayer products and constructions, is considered. The theoretical basis for determining the propagation velocity of elastic waves in a multilayer medium by the hodograph method is given. Based on the studies, recommendations are given for determining the propagation velocity of elastic waves in each individual layer of a multilayer medium, which allows non-destructive testing of the physicomechanical characteristics of each layer of a multilayer medium. It is shown that in addition to simple multiple reflections in a homogeneous medium, in a multilayer medium with parallel interfaces consisting of two or more layers, complex types of multiple reflected waves and mixed waves (reflected-refracted and refracted-reflected) can arise. The main task of applying the low-frequency ultrasonic method is to determine the acoustic parameters of the propagation of elastic waves (velocities, amplitudes, spectra). The main methods for determining the elastic wave velocities are considered, based on the hodograph equation of the indicated reflected waves in a multilayer medium.

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Aleksandr I. Potapov, Artem V. Kondratev (2020) Non-destructive testing of multilayer medium by the method of velocity of elastic waves hodograph. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 348. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.348
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-15
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-15
  • Date published
    2020-06-15

Multi-terminal dc grid overall control with modular multilevel converters

This paper presents a control philosophy for multiterminal DC grids, which are embedded in the main AC grid. DC transmission lines maintain higher power flow at longer distances compared with AC lines. The voltage losses are also much lower. DC power transmission is good option for Russian north. Arctic seashore regions of Russia don't have well developed electrical infrastructure therefore power line lengths are significant there. Considering above it is possible to use DC grids for supply mining enterprises in Arctic regions (offshore drilling platforms for example). Three different control layers are presented in an hierarchical way: local, primary and secondary. This whole control strategy is verified in a scaled three-nodes DC grid. In one of these nodes, a modular multilevel converter (MMC) is implemented (five sub-modules per arm). A novel model-based optimization method to control AC and circulating currents is discussed. In the remaining nodes, three-level voltage source converters (VSC) are installed. For their local controllers, a new variant for classical PI controllers are used, which allow to adapt the values of the PI parameters with respect to the measured variables. Concerning the primary control, droop control technique has been chosen. Regarding secondary level, a new power flow technique is suggested. Unbalance conditions are also verified in order to show the robustness of the whole control strategy.

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Miguel Jiménez Carrizosa, Nikola Stankovic, Jean-Claude Vannier, Yaroslav E. Shklyarskiy, Aleksei I. Bardanov (2020) Multi-terminal dc grid overall control with modular multilevel converters. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 357. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.357
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2020-03-20
  • Date accepted
    2020-05-24
  • Date published
    2020-06-10

Landscape monitoring studies of the North Caucasian geochemical province

The data on the geochemical features of the bedrocks and soils of the province are given. Considerable attention is paid to regional abundances, as well as enrichment and dispersion factors of the chemical elements in landscapes. Using the example of the North Caucasus, it is shown that for such indicators as phytomass, geological, geomorphological, and geobotanical features, it is possible to make a preliminary outlining of regional structures corresponding to geochemical provinces. At the same time, a subsequent geochemical study of these structures remains mandatory. Upon determining certain geochemical associations, geochemical provinces can be basically distinguished; to a large extent, geochemical properties of these accumulated and scattered associations of elements contribute to the regional soil geochemistry. The results of long-term monitoring studies of the North Caucasus geochemical province have shown that the key features of the regional landscapes are due to the composition of bedrock and the presence of a large number of ore deposits and occurrences. The data obtained are the basis for assessing the state of the environment in conditions of increasing anthropogenic impact, and the established regional abundances can be used to assess the degree of pollution in agricultural, residential, and mining landscapes.

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Vladimir A. Alekseenko, Natalya V. Shvydkaya, Alexander V. Puzanov, Aleksey V. Nastavkin (2020) Landscape monitoring studies of the North Caucasian geochemical province. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 371. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.371
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-07
  • Date accepted
    2020-05-24
  • Date published
    2020-06-10

Study of the technogenesis of the Degtyarsky mine by audio-magnetotelluric express sounding

The audio-magnetotelluric express sounding was performed at four sections crossing the mine field of the currently not functioning Degtyarsky mine. Field measurements were carried out by a universal broadband receiver “OMAR-2m” with active electromagnetic field sensors developed at the Institute of Geophysics UB RAS. Based on the obtained data, deep sections of the electrophysical parameters of the medium – apparent resistivity and effective longitudinal conductivity – are drawn. The nature of the geoelectric structure of the section allows mapping of the major lithochemical contamination plume and identifying the tectonic disturbance zones that drain aggressive mine waters. The mine waters of the Degtyarsky mine are a source of dangerous technogenic pollution. Despite the neutralization of surface runoff, underground routes of acidic water migration occur along tectonic cracks, primarily in the zone of the regional Serovsko-Mauksky fault. Tectonic zones in the mine area contain contaminated fissure-vein water, which is transited at a depth of 70 to over 200 m. Discharging ascending springs of such waters can be located at a great distance from controlled hydrological objects and pollute sources of drinking and household water supply. Urban development in the western and eastern parts of Degtyarsk does not fall within the distribution zone of polluted water. The southern part of the city is located beyond the watershed of the mine water flow area, but a danger of local contamination by tectonic disturbance zones remains possible. The worst environmental situation is observed in the northern outskirts of Degtyarsk, which falls into the area of heavy pollution of underground and surface waters. Besides, acidic fumes from the flooded Kolchedanny quarry can affect the health of city residents when emitted to the atmosphere.

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Vadim A. Davydov (2020) Study of the technogenesis of the Degtyarsky mine by audio-magnetotelluric express sounding. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 378. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.378
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-14
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-14
  • Date published
    2020-06-14

Geochemical approach in assessing the technogenic impact on soils

The soil assessment was carried out in the technogenically-affected area of Irkutsk Oblast with the geochemical approach as a key geoecological method using physical and chemical techniques of analysis and ecodiagnostics. Diagnostic signs of the disturbed natural properties of the soil were revealed up to a depth of 40 cm in the profile based on macro- and micromorphometric parameters. The content of heavy metals (HM) – Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cu with an excess of standards was determined, and empirical HM – pH correlations were obtained by statistical clustering of the data array. The contributions of additional factors affecting the chemical element distribution in the soil layer were investigated. Significant soil contamination with sulfates and the possibility of implementing the ion-exchange of HM andfor element immobilization were revealed. It was shown that reactions with sulfates and the influence of pH, HM exchange processes involving mobile K and P can determine the nature of the described chemical element distribution in the multi-factor-contaminated technogenic soil. However, the effectiveness of such types of interaction is different for each metal and also depends on the quantitative ratio of substances and soil characteristics, even under a minor change in pH. Two-parameter correlations of HM distribution in sulfate-contaminated soils confirmed the different degrees of involvement of chemical elements in these types of interactions. The results obtained and the identified factors are of applied significance and can be used as the basis for geoecological differentiation of the contaminated soil, as well as for determining local geochemical fields in the technogenesis zone. Areas of advanced research are related to three-dimensional modeling for a more complete study of the cause-and-effect relationships of geochemical parameters.

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Galina I. Sarapulova (2020) Geochemical approach in assessing the technogenic impact on soils. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 243. p. 388. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2020.3.388