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Vol 224

Geology
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Evolution of mineral forms of rare element accumulation in ore-bearing granites and meta-somatites of Verkhneurmiysk ore cluster (Priamur region)

It has been attempted to expand existing understanding of accessory mineralization evolution of rare metal-granite series at post-magmatic stage of their development and formation of associated hydrothermal deposits. Composition and distribution of rare elements of Verkhneurmiysk ore cluster have been examined from the position of mineralogy: the study focused on accessory and ore minerals Sn, W, Nb, Ta, Bi, Y, rare earth elements in rare metal Li-F granites and associated metasomatites. It has been discovered that accessory magmatic and hydrothermal mineral complexes share the same geochemical features, are formed under the leading role of abovementioned elements and consistently follow each other over time. It has been traced how mineral forms of accumulation of Sn, W, Nb, Ta, Y and rare earth elements evolve in the processes of magmatic crystallization and post-magmatic metasomatism in the time series: rare metal granites → zwitters → tourmalinites → chloritites. Mineral rocks of each stage were noted to inherit mineralogical and geochemical distinctions from the rocks of the previous stage. A significant number of minerals, forming in the course of two-three stages, have been discovered, as well as omnipresent magmagene-hydrothermal minerals. For a number of accessory minerals of rare metal granites post-magmatic generations have been identified. Special diversity among accessories of rare metal granites and zwitters was observed in tungsten, tin and bismuth minerals. Composition of Verkhneurmiysk ore cluster mineralization is in many aspects similar to the one of metasomatic accessory minerals of rare metal granites. Tungsten-tin deposits of Verkhneurmiysk ore cluster are polyformational and combine mineralogical features of cassiterite-quartz and cassiterite-silicate formations. Evolution of mineral forms of the key rare elements (Sn, W, Bi, Nb, Ta, rare earth elements) points to a genetic link between tungsten-tin mineralization of zwitter-tourmalinite formation and rare metal Li-F granites of the region. The evidence of that is a specific genetic category of accessory materials, formed as a result of pseudomorphism of protominerals, – transformational minerals or metasomatic accessory minerals. The list of metasomatic accessories includes exactly those minerals which are considered indicators of ore generation capacity of Far Eastern leucogranites: cassiterite, wolframite, scheelite, a number of sulphides. Similar qualitative composition of magmatic and post-magmatic minerals demonstrates metallogenic specialization of parent granite magma. Predicted mineragenic significance of research in the field of mineral forms evolution of rare elements accumulation in ore-bearing granites and metasomatites is associated with possibilities to assess metallogenic specialization of parent granite magma. Understanding of accessory paragenesis evolution should serve as a base for exploration geo-technologies in the Far East metallogenic province.

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V. I. Alekseev, K. G. Sukhanova, I. M. Gembitskayaya Evolution of mineral forms of rare element accumulation in ore-bearing granites and meta-somatites of Verkhneurmiysk ore cluster (Priamur region). Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 149. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.149
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Result of combining data from impulse electrical prospecting and aeromagnetic prospecting for groundwater exploration in the south of Yakutia

In 2014 in the south of Yakutia in the course of groundwater exploration works a complex of geophysical methods was tested: aeromagnetic and electrical prospecting was carried out using near-field transient sounding and electromagnetic sounding with induced polarization. Prospective structures for hydrogeological drilling are zones of discontinuous tectonic faults. In order to identify them, data from aeromagnetic and electrical prospecting were used. Results of drilling confirmed the presence of watered areas; however, analysis of obtained information allowed to come to the conclusion that the amount of water in the faults has no direct connection to electrical conductivity.

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A. Yu. Davydenko, N. A. Aikasheva, S. V. Bukhalov, Yu. A. Davydenko Result of combining data from impulse electrical prospecting and aeromagnetic prospecting for groundwater exploration in the south of Yakutia. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 156. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.156
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Inversion modeling of the natural state and production history of Mutnovsky geothermal field in 1986-2006

Numerical 3D model of Mutnovsky geothermal field (Dachny springs), which consist of 517 elements and partially takes into account double porosity, was developed in 1992-1993 using computer program TOUGH2. Calibration of the model was based on data from test yield of the wells and initial distribution of temperature and pressure in the reservoir. This model was used for techno-economic justification of power plant construction (Mutnovskaya GeoES, 2002). The model was recreated in the program PetraSim v.5.2, the calibration was carried out using additional data on production history before year 2006 and inversion iTOUGH2-EOS1 modeling. Comparison of reservoir parameters, estimated using inversion modeling, with previous parameter estimations (given in brackets) showed the following: upflow rate of heat-transfer agent in natural conditions 80.5 (54.1) kg/s, heat flux enthalpy 1430 (1390) kJ/kg, reservoir permeability 27∙10 –15 -616∙10 –15 (3∙10 –15 -90∙10 –15 ) m 2 . Inversion modeling was also used to estimate reinjection rates, inflow of meteoric water in the central part of geothermal field and compressibility of reservoir rocks.

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A. V. Kiryukhin, O. O. Usacheva Inversion modeling of the natural state and production history of Mutnovsky geothermal field in 1986-2006. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 163. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.163
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Conducting lithospheric heterogeneities as a criterion of predictive assessment for promising diamond areas (on the example of Siberian kimberlite province)

Results of magnetotelluric tests, carried out in Siberian kimberlite province, are examined from the viewpoint of structural control over location of kimberlite fields and bunches of kimberlite pipes. It is demonstrated that the key factors controlling occurrence of kimberlite magmatism are: deep systems of rift-driven fractures; areas of their intersection within high-ohmic blocks of Earth crust; conducting permeable areas, located at the intersections of deep faults. Various-rank objects of kimberlite magmatism are characterized by a certain combination of geoelectric heterogeneities, differing in resistance, lateral sizes and depth. The province is situated within the boundaries, limited by isolines 180-220 km of current asthenosphere; kimberlite areas – within the contours of high-resistance regional heterogeneities. Fields and bunches of kimberlite pipes are concentrated within boundaries of conducting subvertical zones. These factors can be used as criteria of predictive assessment for promising diamond areas of the ancient platforms. 

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E. V. Pospeeva Conducting lithospheric heterogeneities as a criterion of predictive assessment for promising diamond areas (on the example of Siberian kimberlite province). Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 170. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.170
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Frequency electromagnetic sounding with industrial power lines on Karelia-Kola geotraverse

The paper describes theory, method and first experimental results of research on the interaction between electromagnetic waves of extremely low and ultra low frequency (0.1-200 Hz), the Earth crust and ionosphere in the field of two mutually orthogonal industrial power lines, 109 and 120 km long, in the course of FENICS experiment (Fennoscandian Electrical conductivity from Natural and Induction Control Source soundings). The main focus was on the observation results along the line of Karelia-Kola geotraverse over a distance of 700 km from the source. High horizontal homogeneity of geoelectrical lithosphere section has been detected in the eastern part of the Baltic shield at depth range from 10-15 to 50-70 km. Parameters of «regular» lithosphere section have been specified to the depth of 60-70 km. As a result of inverse problem solution for the western part of Karelia and Central Finland, a zone of decreased transverse resistivity has been detected at the depth of 50-60 km, corresponding to the area, detected by seismic methods, where Moho boundary reaches the same depth. 

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A. N. Shevtsov, A. A. Zhamaletdinov, V. V. Kolobov, M. B. Barannik Frequency electromagnetic sounding with industrial power lines on Karelia-Kola geotraverse. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 178. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.178
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Technology and economics of near-surface geothermal resources exploitation

The paper presents economic justification for applicability of near-surface geothermal installations in Luga region, based on results of techno-economic calculations as well as integrated technical and economic comparison of different prediction scenarios of heat supply, both conventional and using geothermal heat pumps (GHP). Construction costs of a near-surface geothermal system can exceed the costs of central heating by 50-100 %. However, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of heat production for geothermal systems are 50-70 % lower than for conventional sources of heating. Currently this technology is very important, it is applied in various countries (USA, Germany, Japan, China etc.), and depending on the region both near-surface and deep boreholes are being used. World practice of near-surface geothermal systems application is reviewed in the paper. 

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E. I. Boguslavskii, V. V. Fitsak Technology and economics of near-surface geothermal resources exploitation. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 189. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.189
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Prospects of obtaining samples of bottom sediments from subglacial lake Vostok

The paper proves the timeliness of obtaining and examining bottom sediments from subglacial Lake Vostok. Predictive geological section of Lake Vostok and information value of bottom sediments have been examined. Severe requirements towards environmental security of lake examinations and sampling of bottom sediments rule out the use of conventional drilling technologies, as they would pollute the lake with injection liquid from the borehole. In order to carry out sampling of bottom sediments from the subglacial lake, it is proposed to use a dynamically balanced tool string, which enables rotary drilling without any external support on borehole walls to transmit counter torque.     A theoretical analysis has been carried out to assess the operation of the tool string, which is a two-mass oscillatory electromechanical system of reciprocating and rotating motion (RRM) with two degrees of freedom.

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N. I. Vasil'ev, G. L. Leichenkov, E. A. Zagrivnyi Prospects of obtaining samples of bottom sediments from subglacial lake Vostok. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 199. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.199
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Complex use of heat-exchange tunnels

The paper presents separate results of complex research (experimental and theoretical) on the application of heat-exchange tunnels – in frozen rocks, among other things – as underground constructions serving two purposes. It is proposed to use heat-exchange tunnels as a separate multi-functional module, which under normal conditions will be used to set standards of heat regime parameters in the mines, and in emergency situations, natural or man-made, will serve as a protective structure to shelter mine workers. Heat-exchange modules can be made from mined-out or specially constructed tunnels. Economic analysis shows that the use of such multi-functional modules does not increase operation and maintenance costs, but enhances safety of mining operations and reliability in case of emergency situations. There are numerous theoretic and experimental investigations in the field of complex use of mining tunnels, which allows to develop regulatory design documents on their basis. Experience of practical application of heat-exchange tunnels has been assessed from the position of regulating heat regime in the mines.

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A. F. Galkin Complex use of heat-exchange tunnels. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 209. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.209
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-21
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Method of determining characteristics for air heating system in railway tunnels in harsh climatic conditions

The article describes climatic and mining-technical conditions influencing frost formation process. It was noted that the radical tools for preventing frost formation in winter periods is creation of positive temperature in tunnels by heating the incoming outside air. We formulated tasks, which solution will promote development of engineering calculation method for heating systems parameters. The article provides results of theoretical studies based on mathematical modelling and analytical solutions and data on field instrumental measurements, which were processed with similarity criteria. It compares mathematical modelling results on determining amount of tunnel incoming air flow with portal gates and calculations data from experimentally determined coefficient of local resistance. We proved the energy efficiency of placing the tunnel portal gates and validated the places of preheated air injection points and removal of cool air from this flow, which provides maximal energy effect.  

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S. G. Gendler, S. V. Sinyavina Method of determining characteristics for air heating system in railway tunnels in harsh climatic conditions. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 215. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.215
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Chemistry as a basis for solving environmental issues

The article summarizes over 40 years of authors’ experience in the field of physical chemistry and chemical technology of glassy state of materials. It is shown that environmental issues are caused not by Chemistry as a science but by actions of ecologically illiterate humans using its advances. It is noted that without chemistry humankind cannot live comfortably and solve existing environmental problems. In support these facts we describe several developments made by authors of this article in energy industry, high temperature machinery, glass production technology, glassy phosphate fertilizers, production of non-waste systems and complex research of physical-chemical principles of glassy oil sorbents production of organic and non-organic nature.

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V. E. Kogan, T. S. Shakhparonova Chemistry as a basis for solving environmental issues. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 223. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.223
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

HYDRO-IMP technology for upgrading of heavy petroleum

Hydroprocessing is one of the most important processes in petroleum refining industry, not only for upgrading of heavy oils but also for producing low-impurity content fuels and preparing feeds for various conversion processes. Experimental results obtained in pilot plant and semi-commercial scales for hydroprocessing of heavy oils are reported in this work. Mexican heavy crude oils (10, 13 and 16°API) with high amount of impurities were used for all tests. Hydroprocessing was conducted at moderate reaction severity in two fixed-bed reactors in series. Removals of sulfur, metals and asphaltenes, as well as changes of API gravity and viscosity were monitored at different reaction conditions with time-on-stream. Upgraded oils with reduced amounts of impurities and increased API were obtained, keeping sediment formation below maximum allowable content. Removal of impurities was higher in semi-commercial scale compared with pilot plant test. Have been proved that the heavier the feed the greater the gain in product quality. For instance, 10°API crude can increase its gravity up to ~22°API (Δ°API = 12), while 16°API crude increases its gravity up to ~25°API (Δ°API = 9). Sediment formation was also kept below 0.05 wt % and no other problems (excessive reactor delta-P, plugging, etc.) were observed during the test.

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Khorkhe Anchita HYDRO-IMP technology for upgrading of heavy petroleum. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 229. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.229
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Method of restoring strength determination test

The main requirements for an electric unit at the stages of its design, development, production and usage are described in technical specifications (TS) and standards (GOST). The electric unit should work in accordance with a specific purpose and have significant reliability, durability and safety. The reliability and durability of electric unit significantly depends on restoring strength speed value, that is growth of breakage voltage in arc pass for eliminating repeated arc strike. This article describes several methods of test identification of restoring strength, which were carried out at special testing laboratory units. They are described in relation to conditions of measuring the residual arc column of AC current after it reaches zero point and can be used in designing arc blowout units of low voltage. 

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S. M. Apollonskii, Yu. V. Kuklev Method of restoring strength determination test. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 235. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.235
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Research on regimes of limonite ore hyrdotransport for the conditions of Perdo Soto Alba plant

The paper examines regular flow patterns of high-concentrated limonite pulp with significant content of finest grains. Engineering procedures have been developed to calculate basic parameters of limonite ore hydrotransport in turbulent and structured regimes. Trustworthiness of scientific statements, conclusions and recommendations is justified by theoretical research, establishment of analytical dependences, results of laboratory and industrial experiments. Practical regularities of behavior have been identified for the coefficient of hydraulic resistance, depending on pulp density in the range 35-45 % in case of pulp flow in structured regime, as well as regularity of pressure losses in case of pulp flow in horizontal and inclined pipelines in turbulent regime.

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Raul' Isk'erdo Pupo, Al'berto Turro Breff Research on regimes of limonite ore hyrdotransport for the conditions of Perdo Soto Alba plant. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 240. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.240
Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Models for assessment of public-private partnership projects in subsurface management

Aims and goals of this paper. The article is devoted to analysis of issues related to development of public-private partnership (PPP) projects in mineral resources sector of Russia. The special emphasis is given to the most common PPP model in the field of industrial infrastructure construction using the Investment Fund of RF. We offer specific tools to be used with Russian models for assessment of PPP projects and forecasting of its efficiency for its participants. This model allows evaluating the results of the whole deposit development process, constructing graphs of all types of expenditures and revenues (by years), and having rent assessment of deposit NPV (net present value) and internal rent rate (IRR). Methods and results. The iteration process at each step enables assessment of budget revenue forecast, living standards indexes, ecological parameters and performance indicators, as well as a certain variant of PPP project implementation for investors (direct government expenses on implementation of infrastructure objects and environmental activities, tax benefits). We have a set of tools for supporting the management decision making process in developing efficient PPP mechanism, balancing long-term government interests, private sector and local people interests arising during socio-economic development of mineral resources area. This method using the suggested tools for analyzing efficiency of a specific partnership mechanism is shown on the examples of projects of developing different deposits in Transbaikal region.

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I. S. Kalgina Models for assessment of public-private partnership projects in subsurface management. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 247. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.247
Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Problems of mineral tax computation in the oil and gas sector

The paper demonstrates the role of mineral tax in the overall sum of tax revenues in the budget. Problems of tax computation and payment have been reviewed; taxpayers and taxation basis of the amount of extracted minerals have been clearly defined. Issues of rental content of natural resource taxes are reviewed, as well as problems of right definition of the rental component in the process of mineral tax calculation for liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. One of important problems in mineral tax calculation is a conflict between two laws – the Subsoil Law and the Tax Code of Russian Federation (26 th chapter). There is an ambiguity in the mechanism of calculating amounts of extracted mineral resources – from the positions of the Tax Code and the Subsoil Law. The second problem is in the necessity to amend the mineral tax for oil extraction the same way as it has been done for gas extraction, when characteristics of each field are taken into account. This will provide a basis for correct computation of the natural resource rent for liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The paper offers recommendations for Russian authorities on this issue.

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N. G. Privalov, S. G. Privalova Problems of mineral tax computation in the oil and gas sector. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 255. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.255
Mining education: traditions and perspectives in the XXI century
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

BIM technology and experience of their introduction into educational process for training bachelor students of major 08.03.01 «Construction»

The article deals with issues of necessity of training and development of working staff for construction industry of Russian Federation for creation of competitive construction industry, meeting the high quality and efficiency standards, working in basis of modern financial and economic, technical and management mechanisms. One of the ways to solve this task of innovative development is modernization of architectural and building design, in particular implementation of BIM technology enabling making efficient decisions at all stages of building and structures life cycle – from investment concept till operation and even demolition. In relation to this the industry demands highly qualified workers and engineers (bachelor students) being able not only to get new knowledge but to use them for solving practical tasks of modern construction industry and market. The article present a concept of designing educational programme for training students with major 08.03.01 «Construction» (bachelor degree) focusing on systematized knowledge, skills and tools for training, in particular, through interconnection and continuity during course and diploma papers based on BIM technology. 

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L. A. Goldobina, P. S. Orlov BIM technology and experience of their introduction into educational process for training bachelor students of major 08.03.01 «Construction». Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 224. p. 263. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.2.263