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Vol 222

Geology
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Poorly studied phenomena in geoelectrics

Undoubtedly, modern geoelectric technologies emerge in the result of the development of traditional approaches and techniques. However of more interest is the appearance of completely new technologies based on new effects and new models of interaction of geological medium and electromagnetic field. The author does not commit to indicate principally new directions, but only wants to discuss some poorly known facts from the theory and practice of geoelectrics. The outcome of this study could be considered attracting the attention of experts to non-traditional signals in geoelectrics. The reviewed phenomena of interest, not fully implemented in practice in the author’s opinion, are field split into two polarizations: transverse electric (the ТЕ-field) and transverse magnetic (the ТМ-field), then some poorly known properties of ТМ-field, the role of bias currents, the anisotropy of horizontal resistances, the role of geomagnetic field in geoelectric sounding, the unique resolution of CSEM (Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic) techniques at sea.

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V. S. Mogilatov Poorly studied phenomena in geoelectrics. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 783. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.783
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Composition, age and tectonic meaning of granite boulders in the devonian conglomerates of the north-west part of Spitzbergen

Identifying complexes of the early Proterozoic age in the composition of crystal foundation is a key task in studying pre-Cambrian formations of the whole of Spitzbergen and its northwestern part in particular. The territory of that region is formed by three deeply metamorphosed complexes that underwent the processes of migmatization and granitization in mid-Rifey and were broken through by granitoids of mid-Rifey and mid-Paleozoic. In their turn, the outbursts of the foundation are overlayed by terrigene rocks of the Devonian graben of Spitzbergen, conglomerates forming a large share among them. In the course of petrographic and chemical studies of such compositions, as well as isotopic characteristics of zircons from the boulders of basal conglomerates of Red Bay (D 1 ) series, the suite of Wolfberget at Cape Conglomeratodden the presence was identified of reddish (meat-red) granites of isotopic age of 1631±19 Mil years, which is comparable to late Karelian processes manifested actively across the archipelago. It is also proven that transformations of these rocks within the range of 380±42 Mil years are well associated with mid-paleozoic events, considerable restructuring of the foundation associated with them. The age range we defined is another proof of manifestation of early pre-Cambrian (late Karelian) processes in the northwestern Spitzbergen.

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A. N. Sirotkin, A. N. Evdokimov Composition, age and tectonic meaning of granite boulders in the devonian conglomerates of the north-west part of Spitzbergen. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 789. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.789
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Anomalous geochemistry of zircon from the Yastrebetskoe rare metal deposit (SIMS- and TOF-study)

A detailed isotopic geochemical study (secondary ions mass-spectrometry – SIMS, time-of-flight mass-spectrometry – TOF) of zircon from ore-bearing syenites of the Yastrebetskoe rare metal-rare earth deposit (the Ukrainian Shield) has yielded proofs of magmatic genesis of the deposit: unaltered central parts of zircon grains typically feature characteristic magmatic spectra of REE distribution, their values of δ 18 O staying somewhat higher than the mantle value (6.5 ‰, on the average). During the final stage of forming the deposit the role of fluorine-water-bearing fluids enriched with Y, REE, Nb, Ве and heavy oxygen had increased, as directly reflected in the anomalous isotopic-geochemical characteristics of zircon rims and zones of zircon alteration (the contents of Y reaches 61874 ppm, that of Nb – 7976 ppm, Be – 1350 ppm, δ 18 O reaches 12.42‰, F – 0.7 % mass, H 2 O – 4% mass). 

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S. G. Skublov, S.-Kh. Li Anomalous geochemistry of zircon from the Yastrebetskoe rare metal deposit (SIMS- and TOF-study). Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 798. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.798
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Geodynamic methods for assessing methane distribution in bituminous coal deposits and measures to intensify methane fluxes during mine gas drainage

This paper explores states of methane within the coal bearing stratum and shows heavy dependency of the intrastratal gas migration on the forms of porous space and petrographic properties of coal. The adsorbed methane is found to be predominant in the coal of Kuznetsk Basin. Different forms of coal diffusion and filtration are described revealing their dependency on geological and thermodynamic conditions. The paper provides justification for the primary focus on geodynamic processes when designing gas drainage systems and applicability of morphometric methods and remote sensing data for their identification. The significance of researches into the processes activating exothermic reactions resulting in methane transition to free state is explained. The paper presents the results of using seismic-acoustic stimulation techniques as one of the practical approaches to addressing this issue. Results of successful industrial testing have been compared with the results of numerical modelling of stress-strain state, which can also be managed through seismic-acoustic stimulation.

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E. V. Goncharov, S. V. Tsirel' Geodynamic methods for assessing methane distribution in bituminous coal deposits and measures to intensify methane fluxes during mine gas drainage. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 803. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.803
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

The ways of transformation of salt production from the saline lakes of Apsheron peninsula

The issues of salt production at salt lakes of Apsheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan are reviewed here. The paper objective is to examine the brine formation process and analyze the ways of transformation of salt extraction from the lakes of Apsheron Peninsula under ever increasing industrial development and urbanization. The research on ecological state of salt lakes at the peninsula have shown that the decades-long development of oil and gas and other industries had a dramatical impact on the natural properties of water resources in this area. Laboratory test revealed high concentrations of total hydrocarbons, phenols, toxic metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, V, Mo, etc.), surface-active suspended solids and other pollutants in water samples of salt lakes. The paper presents physical and chemical properties of Boyukshore Lake, which for many years was the republic’s primary source of cooking salt. Based on comparative analysis of obtained properties with the maximum allowable concentrations and international standards the level of pollution of natural salt lakes of Apsheron has been assessed and the contribution of each anthropogenic source to the pollution of these water bodies has been determined. The paper presents quantitative and qualitative properties and pictures of the lakes depicting formation of saline deposits and volumes of salt produced at brine lakes of Apsheron. It has been established that decades-long negative impact on the environment led to disruption of ecological balance of the open waters in the region. Most saline lakes in the peninsula lost their natural qualities and became unsuitable for salt production.

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V. A. Mamedov, Kh. Kh. Khalilova The ways of transformation of salt production from the saline lakes of Apsheron peninsula. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 809. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.809
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Simulation of rock deformation behavior

A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

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Ya. I. Rudaev, D. A. Kitaeva, M. A. Mamadalieva Simulation of rock deformation behavior. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 816. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.816
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

A technique for selective extraction of ions of gold and silver from hydrochloric solutions with tributylphosphate

Extraction is studied by tributylphosphate (TBP) of ions of gold and silver from hydrochloric solutions during the portional and single time feed of extractant in dependence of the initial concentration of metal ions, temperature, concentration of hydrochloric acid, the ratio of organic (О) and water W phases О:W. The initial solutions contained soluble complex chlorides of gold and silver. When dissolving metal chlorides in the solution of common salt and hydrochloric acid, water soluble coordinate compound are formed that contain complex anions [AuCl 2 ] – , [AuCl 4 ] – , [AgCl 2 ] – , [AgCl 3 ] 2– , [AgCl 4 ] 3– , et al. As an extractant we used the tri-butyl ether of phosphoric acid (С 4 Н 9 О) 3 РО hat belongs to oxygen containing neutral extractants. The formation of coordinate (complex) compounds of TBP and metal polychlorides may be treated as the process of solvation of the extracted metal salt by the extractant. For selective extraction of ions of gold and silver from their hydrochloric solutions by tributylphosphate it is run feeding the extractant portionally to the solution at the minimal time of contact between the solution and the extractant; it helps extracting gold almost completely with the few first portions of the extractant at concentrations of 2n HCl 240 g/dm 3 NaCl and the temperature t = 60°С. Meanwhile the extraction of silver is kept to a minimum. Silver is extracted almost completely after the extraction of gold is over; it is done with tributylphosphate as well at concentrations of 3n HCl, 240 g/dm 3 NaCl and the temperature t = 20°С.

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L. A. Voropanova, N. B. Kokoeva A technique for selective extraction of ions of gold and silver from hydrochloric solutions with tributylphosphate. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 823. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.823
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

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R. Kavalla, V. Yu. Bazhin Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 828. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.828
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Effect of chemical composition and quality of heavy yarega oil on selection of appropriate processing technology

The paper explores physical and chemical properties and composition of heavy oil from Yarega field and its vacuum residue, i.e. the tar. The capillary chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to identify specific group hydrocarbon composition of heavy Yarega oil and components extracted therefrom, which has proven its belonging to highly resinous sulfurous naphthenic and aromatic oils. Based on the comparative analysis of composition and quality of feedstock a possibility has been assessed to produce a high-quality needle coke with low content of sulphur and metals from the heavy oil of Yarega field and its vacuum residue. An integrated process flow diagram for heavy Yarega oil refinement has been proposed, including preliminary deasphalting and demetallization, hydrotreatment, delayed coking and thermodestructive processes or gasification.

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N. K. Kondrasheva, Anchita Khorkhe Effect of chemical composition and quality of heavy yarega oil on selection of appropriate processing technology. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 833. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.833
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes

In order to keep diesel engines in good working order the troubleshooting methods shall be improved. For their further improvement by parameters of associated processes a need has arisen to develop a diesel engine troubleshooting method based on time parameters of operating cycle. For such method to be developed a computational experiment involving simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes has been carried out. The simulation was based on the basic mathematical model of reciprocating internal combustion engines, representing a closed system of equations and relationships. The said model has been supplemented with the engine torque dynamics taking into account the current values of in-cylinder processes with different amounts of fuel injected, including zero feed. The torque values obtained by the in-cylinder pressure conversion does not account for mechanical losses, which is why the base simulation program has been supplemented with calculations for the friction and pumping forces. In order to determine the indicator diagram of idle cylinder a transition to zero fuel feed mode and exclusion of the combustion process from calculation have been provisioned.

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A. S. Afanas'ev, A. A. Tret'yakov Simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 839. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.839
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
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Engineering and technical measures to improve reliability of power supply to construction facilities

The paper examines an issue of ensuring reliable power supply to construction facilities, proposes ways to reduce losses in distribution networks and improve power supply reliability. The primary focus is on increasing the transmission capability of power distribution networks and improving power supply reliability and safety of single-phase electricity consumers. Engineering and technical proposal belongs to the field of electrical engineering and in particular concerns power supply to single-phase consumers from three-phase networks, including construction industry consumers, and can be used in three-phase three-, four- and five-wives alternating current power distribution networks.

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P. S. Orlov Engineering and technical measures to improve reliability of power supply to construction facilities. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 845. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.845
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Simulation of onboard power supply system for small hydrographic vessel «Vaygach»

Computer simulation is a method resorted to more and more frequently for the development of the prospective power supply systems, in particular the vessel power supply system. It provides valuable insights into the transient processes and indicators of electric power quality in the system without building its physical model, thus significantly improving the efficiency and quality of the physical model. Nowadays MathLab package with Simulink application is used with increasing frequency for simulation of such systems. The paper presents a model of the power supply system of small hydrographic vessel ‘Vaygach’ built in MatLab environment. The system vulnerabilities and their remedies have been identified. Changes in sinusoid before and after the non-linear load on the network have been demonstrated and solutions for improving the non-linear distortion factor are proposed. The model developed for the vessel power supply system can be used for building models of different vessels.

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A. I. Pan'kov, V. Ya. Frolov Simulation of onboard power supply system for small hydrographic vessel «Vaygach». Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 852. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.852
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
  • Date published

Impact of the load curve on losses In the power supply network of the company

In the recent years, the researchers and experts in the field of energetics often mention in their publications a need to reduce power transmission losses. Among different ways to accomplish this goal the method of the company load leveling stands out due to its simplicity, accessibility and efficiency. The paper proposes a new assessment factor for additional power losses in distribution network. It is known that dispersion of the load curve correlates with the amount of power losses, which is why the proposed factor is put in a position of dependency on the shape of the load curve of the company. It is demonstrated that the proposed factor can help to identify without any strain a need in technical measures for levelling the load curve of the company and to assess efficiency thereof.

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Ya. E. Shklyarskii, S. Pirog Impact of the load curve on losses In the power supply network of the company. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 858. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.858
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
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Risk of injuries among coal mine workers and its hysteresis

The paper gives an overview of employment in coal mining, levels of extraction and injuries among the coal mine operators in Poland over a span of time from 1954 through to 2010. The injury indicators, such as the incidence rate, severity and the generalized loss index, have been assessed for a period of coal mining sector restructuring from 1993 to 2010. Diverging trends have been revealed, resulting in a need to extend the time span of the analysis. Analysis of records from 1954 to 2010 has shown a multiple cyclicity of trends of change in the values used to derive coefficients. The definition of the Injury Risk has been justified, along with a new way for its representation and its interpretation as a new method with account of the previous studies. Based on this method the injuries at the coal mines of Poland during a period of their restructuring have been investigated with analyzed database expansion to include records from 1954 to 2010.As a result a new dependency, namely the injury risk hysteresis, has been identified. A proposed new method for assessing the injury risk is universal and can be applied not only to the coal mines, but to any facility of any sector within the country and even at the inter-state level. The method can be used to analyze data on the injury incidence rate per 1000 people and the injury severity rate over any span of time.

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Yu. Parkhan'ski Risk of injuries among coal mine workers and its hysteresis. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 869. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.869
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
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Bulk density and aggregate stability assays in percolation columns

The restoration technologies in areas degraded by extractive activities require the use of their own mine spoils. Reducing deficiencies in physical properties, organic matter, and nutrients with a contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was done with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. Two sewage sludge doses were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge) in addition to a different mine spoils used as restoration substrates. The water contribution was provided by a device that simulated short duration rain. The leached water was collected 24 hours after the last application. The experiment saw the bulk density decrease and the aggregate stability increase, thereby improving the structure. The improved soil structure decreases its vulnerability to degradation processes such as erosion and compaction. 

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M. M. Khordan, Dzh. Bek, E. Garsiya-Sanches, F. Garsiya-Orenes Bulk density and aggregate stability assays in percolation columns. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 877. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.877
Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
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Corporate social responsibility in coal industry (practices of russian and european companies)

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is built on interaction between companies and the society which is especially important for major companies that exploit natural resources and play the role of city-forming socially significant entities. Various interpretations of the notion of social responsibility define the varying levels of influence companies have on the society, different levels of contribution of companies in the said process and the degree and level of implementation of CSR. The relations between social responsibility and economic results and the effects of implementing CSR policies are often not obvious. This study offers an assessment of present-day state of corporate social responsibility policies in coal companies of Russia and Poland and formulates proposals on implementing social responsibility projects with consideration of state-of-the-art CSR concepts. The results of the study are as follows: the achieved level of social responsibility in coal companies of Russia and Poland has been assessed; it is proven that most companies in the coal industry are at the level of fragmentary application of CSR concepts; an analysis has been carried out of tools available in the area of social responsibility of coal companies.

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T. V. Ponomarenko, R. Vol'nik, O. A. Marinina Corporate social responsibility in coal industry (practices of russian and european companies). Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 882. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.882
Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
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Research into the innovative potential of an oil and gas company at different stages of field development

The paper presents an overview of research into the methods and principles used to assess the innovative potential of an oil and gas company. The validation is provided for the conceptual framework of the innovative potential, which is characterized by a combination of resources having a specific value for the oil and gas sector. The paper gives a detailed overview of the resources, which determine the innovative potential of the oil and gas company. A system of indicators for assessing the innovative potential of the oil and gas company, including six indicator groups, has been proposed. Key distinctive features of the oil and gas company technological development have been determined based on the use of potential for innovation at different stages of the field development. Technical and economic indicators of the oil field development at different stages are described. A concept of Intelligent Field technology is outlined, representing an innovative system, implementation of which determines a level to which the potential for innovation of the oil and gas company is tapped.

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A. E. Cherepovitsyn, A. Kraslavski Research into the innovative potential of an oil and gas company at different stages of field development. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 892. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.892
Geo-nanomaterials
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-29
  • Date accepted
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Ion distribution function in their own gas plasma

Flat one-sided probe was used for the first time to measure the first seven coefficients in the Legendre polynomial expansion of ion energy and angle distribution functions for He + in He and Ar + in Ar under the conditions when the ion velocity gained along its free run distance is comparable to the average thermal energy of atoms. Analytic solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation is found for ions in their own gas for arbitrary tension of electric field in plasma when the dominating process is resonant charge exchange. The dependence of cross-section of resonant charge exchange on the relative velocity is accounted for. It is demonstrated that the ion velocity distribution function differs significantly from the Maxwell distribution and is defined by two parameters instead of just one. The results of computational and experimental data agree quite well, provided the spread function of measurement technique is taken into account. 

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A. S. Mustafaev, V. S. Sukhomlinov Ion distribution function in their own gas plasma. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 222. p. 864. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2016.6.864