Биогеохимическая оценка состояния почвенно-растительного покрова в промышленных, селитебных и рекреационных зонах Санкт-Петербурга | Пашкевич | Записки Горного института

Биогеохимическая оценка состояния почвенно-растительного покрова в промышленных, селитебных и рекреационных зонах Санкт-Петербурга

М. А. Пашкевич, Дж. Бек, В. А. Матвеева, А. В. Алексеенко

Аннотация


Почвы и растения Санкт-Петербурга испытывают техногенную нагрузку, связанную с деятельностью человека в промышленных, селитебных и рекреационных зонах города. Для оценки трансформации урбаноземов различных функциональных зон в течение летних полевых сезонов 2016-2018 гг. были изучены индустриальные, жилые и парковые территории суммарной площадью свыше 7000 га, находящиеся в южной ландшафтной зоне города. В период полевых работ было отобрано 796 пар проб почвы и растений.

Проведенный комплекс полевых и лабораторных исследований позволил охарактеризовать ключевые биогеохимические особенности ландшафтов, различающихся по функциональному использованию. По результатам химико-аналитических работ, выполненных в аккредитованной лаборатории, были получены сведения о концентрациях загрязняющих металлов в почвенно-растительном покрове.

Интерпретация данных и расчет коэффициентов накопления элементов выявили районы с наиболее неблагоприятной экологической обстановкой. Установлено, что загрязнение окружающей среды в южных районах города привело к значительной степени физической, химической и биологической деградации почвенно-растительного покрова. В настоящее время около 10 % почв данной территории полностью утратили способность к биологическому самоочищению, что привело к нарушению их экологических функций и острой необходимости проведения рекультивационных работ.

 

 


Ключевые слова


биогеохимические циклы; взаимодействие почва-растение; городские экосистемы; качество окружающей среды; экология города; городское зонирование

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31897/pmi.2020.1.125

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